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Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Mar 15;284(1850). pii: 20162818. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.2818.

Molecular clocks indicate turnover and diversification of modern coleoid cephalopods during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.
2
Earth and Planetary System Science, Department of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
3
Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Trace and Environmental DNA Laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
5
NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
6
Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
7
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870344, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.
8
Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830, USA.
9
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
10
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
11
School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.
12
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK jakob.vinther@bristol.ac.uk.

Abstract

Coleoid cephalopod molluscs comprise squid, cuttlefish and octopuses, and represent nearly the entire diversity of modern cephalopods. Sophisticated adaptations such as the use of colour for camouflage and communication, jet propulsion and the ink sac highlight the unique nature of the group. Despite these striking adaptations, there are clear parallels in ecology between coleoids and bony fishes. The coleoid fossil record is limited, however, hindering confident analysis of the tempo and pattern of their evolution. Here we use a molecular dataset (180 genes, approx. 36 000 amino acids) of 26 cephalopod species to explore the phylogeny and timing of cephalopod evolution. We show that crown cephalopods diverged in the Silurian-Devonian, while crown coleoids had origins in the latest Palaeozoic. While the deep-sea vampire squid and dumbo octopuses have ancient origins extending to the Early Mesozoic Era, 242 ± 38 Ma, incirrate octopuses and the decabrachian coleoids (10-armed squid) diversified in the Jurassic Period. These divergence estimates highlight the modern diversity of coleoid cephalopods emerging in the Mesozoic Marine Revolution, a period that also witnessed the radiation of most ray-finned fish groups in addition to several other marine vertebrates. This suggests that that the origin of modern cephalopod biodiversity was contingent on ecological competition with marine vertebrates.

KEYWORDS:

Cephalopoda; molecular clocks; molecular phylogenetics; phylogenomics

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