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Chemosphere. 2016 Dec;165:173-182. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.127. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Detoxification of hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls by Sphingomonas sp. strain N-9 isolated from forest soil.

Author information

1
The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, NARO, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
2
Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, NARO, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
3
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
4
Technology Research Association for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
5
Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, NARO, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address: ktakagi@affrc.go.jp.

Abstract

To examine the biodegradation of hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs), we isolated Sphingomonas sp. strain N-9 from forest soil using mineral salt medium containing 4-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl (4OH-3CB) at the concentration of 10 mg/L. Following incubation with strain N-9, the concentration of 4OH-3CB decreased in inverse proportion to strain N-9 proliferation, and it was converted to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4OH-3CBA) after 1 day. We observed that strain N-9 efficiently degraded lowly chlorinated OH-PCBs (1-4 Cl), while highly chlorinated OH-PCBs (5-6 Cl) were less efficiently transformed. Additionally, strain N-9 degraded PCBs and OH-PCBs with similar efficiencies, and the efficiency of OH-PCB degradation was dependent upon the positional relationships between OH-PCB hydroxyl groups and chlorinated rings. OH-PCB biodegradation may result in highly toxic products, therefore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of two OH-PCBs [4OH-3CB and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl (4OH-3,5CB)] and their metabolites [4OH-3CBA and 3,5-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4OH-3,5CBA)] using PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. Our results revealed that both OH-PCBs induced cell membrane damage and caused neuron-like elongations in a dose-dependent manner, while similar results were not observed for their metabolites. These results indicated that strain N-9 can convert OH-PCBs into chloro-hydroxybenzoic acids having lower toxicity.

KEYWORDS:

Biodegradation; Hydroxylated PCBs; PC12 cells; Sphingomonas; Toxicity evaluation

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