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Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2019 May 23:e13316. doi: 10.1111/apha.13316. [Epub ahead of print]

Thyroid hormone regulation of neural stem cell fate: From development to ageing.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute & Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
2
CNRS UMR 7221, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Abstract

In the vertebrate brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate both neuronal and glial cells throughout life. However, their neuro- and gliogenic capacity changes as a function of the developmental context. Despite the growing body of evidence on the variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating NSC physiology, their precise cellular and molecular actions are not fully determined. Our review focuses on thyroid hormone (TH), a vital component for both development and adult brain function that regulates NSC biology at all stages. First, we review comparative data to analyse how TH modulates neuro- and gliogenesis during vertebrate brain development. Second, as the mammalian brain is the most studied, we highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying TH action in this context. Lastly, we explore how the interplay between TH signalling and cell metabolism governs both neurodevelopmental and adult neurogenesis. We conclude that, together, TH and cellular metabolism regulate optimal brain formation, maturation and function from early foetal life to adult in vertebrate species.

KEYWORDS:

cell fate; development; evo-devo; metabolism; mitochondria; neural stem cell; thyroid hormone

PMID:
31121082
DOI:
10.1111/apha.13316

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