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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 13;17(4). pii: E1191. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17041191.

Inflammatory Markers in Dysmenorrhea and Therapeutic Options.

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Department of Immunobiology and Environment Microbiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Dębinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland.
Department of Physical Therapy, Medical University of Gdańsk, Dębinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland.
Department of Gynecology, Gynecological Oncology and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Smoluchowskiego 17, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland.


Dysmenorrhea often significantly reduces the quality of women's life and is still an important public health problem. Despite numerous studies, the pathomechanism of dysmenorrhea is not fully understood. Previous research indicates the complexity of biochemical reactions between the endocrine, vascular, and immune systems. Prostaglandins play a major role in the pathomechanism of dysmenorrhea. In contrast, cytokines and other proinflammatory factors in primary dysmenorrhea are less studied. In addition to the applied pharmacotherapy, more and more studies proving the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods appear. Therefore, the present work contains a review of the latest research concerning factors involved in dysmenorrhea, as well as therapeutic options. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and and browsed through individual gynecology, physiotherapy journals and books.


dysmenorrhea; inflammation markers; progesterone; treatment; women’s health

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