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Polymers (Basel). 2020 Feb 9;12(2). pii: E388. doi: 10.3390/polym12020388.

Application of LCA Method for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of a Polylactide (PLA) Bottle Shaping.

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Department of Technical Systems Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Institute of Machines and Motor Vehicles, Faculty of Transport Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.
Department of Logistics and Transport Technologies, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice, Poland.


In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the consumption of single-use packaging. Their material diversity is a significant barrier to recycling, causing overloading of landfills. Increasing negative environmental aspects have highlighted the need to develop solutions to achieve a relatively high efficiency of the bottle shaping process with the lowest possible energy consumption. The aim of the project is to try to describe the impact of this process on the state, transformation and development of the natural environment. The work concerns current issues of the impact of packaging on the natural environment. The main goal was to conduct a life cycle analysis (LCA) of beverage bottles made of polylactide. The functional unit comprised a total of 1,000 pieces of PLA bottles with a capacity of 1 L. The boundary of the adopted system included the steps from the delivery of the preforms to the production plant to their correct formation in the process of forming beverage bottles. Further stages of the production process were excluded from the system, such as beverage bottling, labeling, and storage and distribution. Processes related to transport and storage of raw material were also excluded. The LCA analysis was performed using the program of the Dutch company Pre Consultants called SimaPro 8.4.0. The ReCiPe 2016 method was chosen for the interpretation of the quantity of emitted substances into the natural environment. The test results were presented graphically on bar charts and subjected to verification and interpretation.


PLA bottle; ReCiPe2016 method; bio-based and biodegradable polymers; environmental impact; life cycle assessment

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