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Healthcare (Basel). 2019 Nov 6;7(4). pii: E138. doi: 10.3390/healthcare7040138.

Dynamic Linkages among Economic Development, Energy Consumption, Environment and Health Sustainable in EU and Non-EU Countries.

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School of Economics, Jilin University, No. 2699, Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, China.
Department of Economics, Soochow University, No. 56, Kueiyang St., Sec. 1, Taipei 100, Taiwan.


There is a close and important relationship between environmental pollution and public health, and environmental pollution has an important impact on the public health. This study employed the two-stage meta-frontier dynamic network data envelopment analysis (TMDN-DEA) model to explore the environment pollution effects from energy consumption on the mortality of children and adult, tuberculosis rate, survival rate and health expenditure efficiencies in 28 EU countries and 53 non-EU countries from 2010 to 2014. We calculated the overall efficiency scores and the technology gap ratios of each EU and non-EU countries and the efficiencies of input and output variables in the production and health stage. The average overall efficiencies each year in EU countries are higher than in the non-EU countries. But EU countries have higher energy efficiency than non-EU countries, and non-EU countries have higher health efficiency than EU countries. The health expenditure efficiencies in the EU countries are obviously lower than those in non-EU countries. The renewable energy efficiencies are obviously higher than the non-renewable energy efficiencies; PM2.5 efficiencies are obviously higher than the CO2 efficiencies and the children's mortality rate efficiencies are higher than the adult's mortality rate efficiencies for EU countries and non-EU countries. The government management in the EU and non-EU countries should be strengthened to reduce the air pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions and raise energy transformation to the clean energy in renewable energy and improve health efficiencies in medical and health care field.


EU countries; energy efficiency; health efficiency; meta-frontier dynamic network DEA

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