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Sensors (Basel). 2017 Feb 20;17(2). pii: E403. doi: 10.3390/s17020403.

Towards a Semantic Web of Things: A Hybrid Semantic Annotation, Extraction, and Reasoning Framework for Cyber-Physical System.

Author information

1
Information Network Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. shower0512@bupt.edu.cn.
2
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. xyuanu2011@gmail.com.
3
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. yangyunong@bupt.edu.cn.
4
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. zhangch@bupt.edu.cn.
5
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. zhuxn@bupt.edu.cn.
6
Information Network Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. ji.yang.0001@gmail.com.
7
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. ji.yang.0001@gmail.com.

Abstract

Web of Things (WoT) facilitates the discovery and interoperability of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in a cyber-physical system (CPS). Moreover, a uniform knowledge representation of physical resources is quite necessary for further composition, collaboration, and decision-making process in CPS. Though several efforts have integrated semantics with WoT, such as knowledge engineering methods based on semantic sensor networks (SSN), it still could not represent the complex relationships between devices when dynamic composition and collaboration occur, and it totally depends on manual construction of a knowledge base with low scalability. In this paper, to addresses these limitations, we propose the semantic Web of Things (SWoT) framework for CPS (SWoT4CPS). SWoT4CPS provides a hybrid solution with both ontological engineering methods by extending SSN and machine learning methods based on an entity linking (EL) model. To testify to the feasibility and performance, we demonstrate the framework by implementing a temperature anomaly diagnosis and automatic control use case in a building automation system. Evaluation results on the EL method show that linking domain knowledge to DBpedia has a relative high accuracy and the time complexity is at a tolerant level. Advantages and disadvantages of SWoT4CPS with future work are also discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Web of Things; cyber-physical system; entity linking; ontology; semantic annotation; semantic reasoning; semantic sensor network; semantic web

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