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Micromachines (Basel). 2019 Jan 14;10(1). pii: E55. doi: 10.3390/mi10010055.

Bacterial Concentration Detection using a PCB-based Contactless Conductivity Sensor.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. xyzhang774985529@163.com.
2
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. zhylee@hit.edu.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. yuzhang429@126.com.
4
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. 1112710105@hit.edu.cn.
5
Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan. k-ueno@es.hokudai.ac.jp.
6
Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan. misawa@es.hokudai.ac.jp.
7
Department of Applied Chemistry & Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan. misawa@es.hokudai.ac.jp.
8
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. ksun@hit.edu.cn.

Abstract

Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C⁴D) is an improved approach to avoid the problems of labor-intensive, time-consuming and insufficient accuracy of plate count as well as the high-cost apparatus of flow cytometry (FCM) in bacterial counting. This article describes a novel electrode-integrated printed-circuit-board (PCB)-based C⁴D device, which supports the simple and safe exchange of capillaries and improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the contactless detection. Furthermore, no syringe pump is needed in the detection, it reduces the system size, and, more importantly, avoids the effect on the bacteria due to high pressure. The recovered bacteria after C⁴D detection at excitation of 25 Vpp and 60⁻120 kHz were analyzed by flow cytometry, and a survival rate higher than 96% was given. It was verified that C⁴D detection did not influence the bacterial viability. Moreover, bacteria concentrations from 10⁶ cells/mL to 10⁸ cells/mL were measured in a linear range, and relative standard deviation (RSD) is below 0.2%. In addition, the effects on bacteria and C⁴D from background solutions were discussed. In contrast to common methods used in most laboratories, this method may provide a simple solution to in situ detection of bacterial cultures.

KEYWORDS:

E. coli; bacterial concentration; capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D); capillary; printed-circuit-board (PCB)

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