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Waste Manag Res. 2017 Apr;35(4):357-366. doi: 10.1177/0734242X16678064. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Reuse of bituminous pavements: A mini-review of research, regulations and modelling.

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1 Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
2 Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
3 Faculty of Design Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.


Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement. Unlike for iron, steel and aluminium scrap, at this moment, no legislative end-of-waste criteria for aggregates are formulated by the European Commission. More research is necessary in order to develop valuable end-of-life criteria for aggregates. This contribution is a mini-review article of the current regulations, standards and studies concerning end-of-life and end-of-waste of reclaimed asphalt pavement. The existing methodology in order to define end-of-waste criteria, a case study on aggregates and the argumentation used in finished legislative criteria are the basis to clarify some modelling issues for reclaimed asphalt material. Hence, this contribution elucidates the assignment of process environmental impacts to a life cycle stage as defined by EN15804, that is, end-of-life stage (C) and the supplementary information Module D with benefits and loads beyond the system boundary.


End-of-life (EOL); Flanders; bituminous pavement; closed loop recycling; end-of-waste (EOW); life cycle assessment (LCA); reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP); regulations

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