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Nutrients. 2017 Nov 22;9(11). pii: E1273. doi: 10.3390/nu9111273.

Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia.

Author information

1
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. w.yip@auckland.ac.nz.
2
High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. w.yip@auckland.ac.nz.
3
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. i.sequeira@auckland.ac.nz.
4
High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. i.sequeira@auckland.ac.nz.
5
Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. l.plank@auckland.ac.nz.
6
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. s.poppitt@auckland.ac.nz.
7
High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. s.poppitt@auckland.ac.nz.
8
Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. s.poppitt@auckland.ac.nz.

Abstract

Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1-6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8-11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians. In total, we identified 19 studies using the WHO1999 classification, for which the average proportional prevalence for isolated (i)-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT were 43.9%, 41.0%, and 13.5%, respectively, for Caucasian and 29.2%, 49.4%, and 18.2%, respectively, for Asian. For the 14 studies using ADA2003 classification, the average proportional i-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT prevalences were 58.0%, 20.3%, and 19.8%, respectively, for Caucasian; 48.1%, 27.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, for Asian. Whilst not statistically different, there may be clinically relevant differences in the two populations, with our observations for both classifications indicating that prevalence of i-IFG is higher in Caucasian cohorts whilst i-IGT and combined IFG&IGT are both higher in Asian cohorts.

KEYWORDS:

ethnicity; fasting plasma glucose; impaired fasting glucose; impaired glucose tolerance; obesity; oral glucose tolerance test; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29165385
PMCID:
PMC5707745
DOI:
10.3390/nu9111273
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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