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J Pharm Sci. 2018 Apr;107(4):1086-1094. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2017.12.001. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

A Mathematical Model and Experimental Verification of Optimal Nozzle Diameter in Needle-Free Injection.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Machinery Transients, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Accoutrement Technique in Fluid Machinery and Power Engineering, Wuhan 430072, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Waterjet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Machinery Transients, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Accoutrement Technique in Fluid Machinery and Power Engineering, Wuhan 430072, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Waterjet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address: kangyong@whu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Needle-free injection (NFI), as an alternative drug delivery strategy, owns great potential. It is able to reduce complaints about needle phobia and avoid the occurring of accidental needle stick injuries. The nozzle diameter is inherently important in determining the injection dose, injection depth, and pain associated with NFIs. In this work, needle-free injectors with nozzle diameters of 0.17, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50 mm were studied in the simulation and experiment. This article optimizes the mathematical model for spring-powered NFI by considering the hydraulic loss due to the abrupt change in the nozzle exit area and the friction force between the piston and ampoule. We explore the dispersion pattern in gels with different nozzle diameters. Mice insulin injection was conducted to investigate the pharmacological effect of different injection methods. The experimental results show that there is the best dispersion effect and available injection depth while the nozzle diameter is 0.30 mm, which is in agreement with the result predicted by the mathematical model. Also, there is a satisfactory pharmacological effect on the mice insulin injection under the same injection condition. Undoubtedly, the mathematical model is capable of predicting the suitable nozzle diameter under the given conditions.

KEYWORDS:

dispersion pattern; grayscale value; insulin injection; mathematical model; needle-free injection

PMID:
29233727
DOI:
10.1016/j.xphs.2017.12.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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