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Materials (Basel). 2015 Sep 22;8(9):6508-6530. doi: 10.3390/ma8095319.

Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry.

Author information

1
StrucHMRS Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. jegathish24@gmail.com.
2
StrucHMRS Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. auninostoc@gmail.com.
3
StrucHMRS Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. hashim@um.edu.my.
4
Param Agricultural Soil Surveys Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Petaling Jaya 46400, Malaysia. passparam@gmail.com.
5
Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), No 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia. vijaya@mpob.gov.my.
6
StrucHMRS Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. sumiani@um.edu.my.

Abstract

The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG) and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

KEYWORDS:

feasibility; microstructure; palm oil clinker; self-compacting mortar; sustainability

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