Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 15;636:367-382. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.250. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Geological setting control of flood dynamics in lowland rivers (Poland).

Author information

1
Division of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences WULS-SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: grzegorz_wierzbicki@sggw.pl.
2
Division of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences WULS-SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.
3
Division of the Measurement and Observation Service in Warsaw, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute IMGW-PIB, ul. Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract

We aim to answer a question: how does the geological setting affect flood dynamics in lowland alluvial rivers? The study area covers three river reaches: not trained, relatively large on the European scale, flowing in broad valleys cut in the landscape of old glacial plains. We focus on the locations where levees [both: a) natural or b) artificial] were breached during flood. In these locations we identify (1) the erosional traces of flood (crevasse channels) on the floodplain displayed on DEM derived from ALS LIDAR. In the main river channel, we perform drillings in order to measure the depth of the suballuvial surface and to locate (2) the protrusions of bedrock resistant to erosion. We juxtapose on one map: (1) the floodplain geomorphology with (2) the geological data from the river channel. The results from each of the three study reaches are presented on maps prepared in the same manner in order to enable a comparison of the regularities of fluvial processes written in (1) the landscape and driven by (2) the geological setting. These processes act in different river reaches: (a) not embanked and dominated by ice jam floods, (b) embanked and dominated by rainfall and ice jam floods. We also analyse hydrological data to present hydrodynamic descriptions of the flood. Our principal results indicate similarity of (1) distinctive erosional patterns and (2) specific geological features in all three study reaches. We draw the conclusion: protrusions of suballuvial bedrock control the flood dynamics in alluvial rivers. It happens in both types of rivers. In areas where the floodplain remains natural, the river inundates freely during every flood. In other areas the floodplain has been reclaimed by humans who constructed an artificial levee system, which protects the flood-prone area from inundation, until levee breach occurs.

KEYWORDS:

Bedrock; Crevasse channel; Flood; Floodplain; Levee breach; Scour

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center