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Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Nov 5;8(11). pii: E527. doi: 10.3390/antiox8110527.

Enhancement of Minor Ginsenosides Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of American and Canadian Ginsengs (Panax quinquefolius) by Puffing.

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Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.
Department of Food Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.
Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.


The effects of puffing on ginsenosides content and antioxidant activities of American and Canadian ginsengs, Panax quinquefolius, were investigated. American and Canadian ginsengs puffed at different pressures were extracted using 70% ethanol. Puffing formed a porous structure, inducing the efficient elution of internal compounds that resulted in significant increases in extraction yields and crude saponin content. The content of minor ginsenosides (Rg2, Rg3, compound K) increased with increasing puffing pressure, whereas that of major ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rd) decreased, possibly due to their deglycosylation and pyrolysis. Furthermore, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, amount of Maillard reaction products, and acidic polysaccharides content increased with increasing puffing pressure, but 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity did not. There was no substantial difference in the results between puffed American and Canadian ginsengs. Consequently, these results suggest that puffing can be a promising novel technology for processing P. quinquefolius to achieve higher levels of minor ginsenosides and obtain value-added products.


Panax quinquefolius; antioxidant activity; ginsenosides; puffing

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