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Sensors (Basel). 2014 Jun 24;14(6):11260-76. doi: 10.3390/s140611260.

Implementation of ultrasonic sensing for high resolution measurement of binary gas mixture fractions.

Author information

1
SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G627QB, UK. richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk.
2
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Michele.Battistin@cern.ch.
3
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Stephane.Berry@cern.ch.
4
SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G627QB, UK. Alexander.Bitadze@cern.ch.
5
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Pierre.Bonneau@cern.ch.
6
Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. nicolas.bousson@cern.ch.
7
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. boyd@nhn.ou.edu.
8
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. gennaro.bozza@cern.ch.
9
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Olivier.Crespo-Lopez@cern.ch.
10
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. enrico.da.riva@cern.ch.
11
Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 7015, USA. Cyril.Degeorge@cern.ch.
12
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron , Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany. cecile.deterre@desy.de.
13
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Beniamino.Di.Girolamo@cern.ch.
14
Czech Technical University, Technická 4, 16607, Praha Czech Republic. Martin.Doubek@cern.ch.
15
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Gilles.Favre@cern.ch.
16
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Jan.Godlewski@cern.ch.
17
Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. gregh@cppm.in2p3.fr.
18
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. a.hasib@cern.ch.
19
Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Orlova Roscha, RU-188300, Russia. Sergey.Katunin@cern.ch.
20
Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. nicolas.langevin.nl@gmail.com.
21
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. Didier.Lombard@cern.ch.
22
Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. mathieu@cppm.in2p3.fr.
23
STFC Rutherford Appelton Laboratory-Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 OQX, UK. steve.mcmahon@stfc.ac.uk.
24
SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G627QB, UK. Koichi.Nagai@cern.ch.
25
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. benpearson@ou.edu.
26
SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G627QB, UK. dave.robinson@cern.ch.
27
SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G627QB, UK. cecilia.rossi@cern.ch.
28
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. strauss@nhn.ou.edu.
29
Czech Technical University, Technická 4, 16607, Praha Czech Republic. miguel.vitek@gmail.com.
30
Czech Technical University, Technická 4, 16607, Praha Czech Republic. Vaclav.Vacek@cern.ch.
31
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. lukasz.zwalinski@cern.ch.

Abstract

We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 × 10(-5) is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to processes requiring continuous knowledge of particular binary gas mixture fractions.

PMID:
24961217
PMCID:
PMC4118389
DOI:
10.3390/s140611260
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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