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Materials (Basel). 2019 Dec 29;13(1). pii: E139. doi: 10.3390/ma13010139.

Influence of Melt-Pool Stability in 3D Printing of NdFeB Magnets on Density and Magnetic Properties.

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IMAT Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010 Graz, Austria.
Joanneum Research, Materials-Institute for Laser and Plasma Technology, Leobner Straße 94, 8712 Niklasdorf, Austria.
Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fuerther Strasse 246b, 90429 Nuremberg, Germany.
Institut für Elektronenmikroskopie und Nanoanalytik, Steyrergasse 17/III, 8010 Graz, Austria.
Physics of Functional Materials, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.


The current work presents the results of an investigation focused on the influence of process parameters on the melt-track stability and its consequence to the sample density printed out of NdFeB powder. Commercially available powder of Nd7.5Pr0.7Fe75.4Co2.5B8.8Zr2.6Ti2.5 alloy was investigated at the angle of application in selective laser melting of permanent magnets. Using single track printing the stability of the melt pool was investigated under changing process parameters. The influence of changing laser power, scanning speed, and powder layer thickness on density, porosity structure, microstructure, phase composition, and magnetic properties were investigated. The results showed that energy density coupled with powder layer thickness plays a crucial role in melt-track stability. It was possible to manufacture magnets of both high relative density and high magnetic properties. Magnetization tests showed a significant correlation between the shape of the demagnetization curve and the layer height. While small layer heights are beneficial for sufficient magnetic properties, the remaining main parameters tend to affect the magnetic properties less. A quasi-linear correlation between the layer height and the magnetic properties remanence (Jr), coercivity (HcJ) and maximum energy product ((BH)max) was found.


NdFeB; additive manufacturing; melt track; powder thickness; selective laser melting

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