Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Mar Drugs. 2018 Sep 1;16(9). pii: E309. doi: 10.3390/md16090309.

Immune-Enhancement and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Fatty Acids Extracted from Halocynthia aurantium Tunic in RAW264.7 Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea. bbuayy@gmail.com.
2
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea. gogogo171717@gmail.com.
3
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea. shinis@gwnu.ac.kr.
4
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea. umyousg@gwnu.ac.kr.
5
Department of Food Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 31116, Korea. lee252@dankook.ac.kr.
6
Citrus Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Seogwipo 63607, Korea. hortkang@korea.kr.
7
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea. pwj0505@gwnu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Halocynthia aurantium, an edible ascidian species, has not been studied scientifically, even though tunicates and ascidians are well-known to contain several unique and biologically active materials. The current study investigated the fatty acid profiles of the H. aurantium tunic and its immune-regulatory effects on RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results of the fatty acid profile analysis showed a difference in ratios, depending on the fatty acids being analysed, including those of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In particular, omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosatrienoic acid n-3 (ETA n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were much higher than omega-6 fatty acids. Moreover, the H. aurantium tunic fatty acids, significantly and dose-dependently, increased the NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) production in RAW264.7 cells, for immune-enhancement without cytotoxicity. In addition, these fatty acids regulated the transcription of immune-associated genes, including iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and TNF-α. These actions were activated and deactivated via Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)and NF-κB signaling, to regulate the immune responses. Conversely, the H. aurantium tunic fatty acids effectively suppressed the inflammatory cytokine expressions, including iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and TNF-α, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Productions of COX-2 and PGE₂, which are key biomarkers for inflammation, were also significantly reduced. These results elucidated the immune-enhancement and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the H. aurantium tunic fatty acids in macrophage cells. Moreover, the H. aurantium tunic might be a potential fatty acid source for immune-modulation.

KEYWORDS:

Halocynthia aurantium; MAPK; NF-κB pathway; fatty acids; immunomodulation; tunic

PMID:
30200438
PMCID:
PMC6163248
DOI:
10.3390/md16090309
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center