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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera®) requires death receptor Fas, in addition to LFA-1, to trigger cell death in T lymphocytes.

Vega BA, Schober LT, Kim T, Belinka BA Jr, Kachlany SC.

Infect Immun. 2019 May 20. pii: IAI.00309-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00309-19. [Epub ahead of print]


Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Is Delivered to Host Cells in an LFA-1-Indepdendent Manner When Associated with Outer Membrane Vesicles.

Nice JB, Balashova NV, Kachlany SC, Koufos E, Krueger E, Lally ET, Brown AC.

Toxins (Basel). 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E414. doi: 10.3390/toxins10100414.


Mechanisms of LtxA (Leukotoxin), a Potent New Anti-Inflammatory Agent for the Treatment of Alopecia Areata.

Kachlany SC.

J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2015 Nov;17(2):19-22. doi: 10.1038/jidsymp.2015.34. Review.


LFA-1-targeting Leukotoxin (LtxA; Leukothera®) causes lymphoma tumor regression in a humanized mouse model and requires caspase-8 and Fas to kill malignant lymphocytes.

DiFranco KM, Johnson-Farley N, Bertino JR, Elson D, Vega BA, Belinka BA Jr, Kachlany SC.

Leuk Res. 2015 Jun;39(6):649-56. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2015.03.010. Epub 2015 Mar 21.


Expression and targeting of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on white blood cells for treatment of allergic asthma.

Gupta A, Espinosa V, Galusha LE, Rahimian V, Miro KL, Rivera-Medina A, Kasinathan C, Capitle E, Aguila HA, Kachlany SC.

J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Mar;97(3):439-46. doi: 10.1189/jlb.5HI0414-196R. Epub 2014 Oct 23.


Leukotoxin kills rodent WBC by targeting leukocyte function associated antigen 1.

DiFranco KM, Kaswala RH, Patel C, Kasinathan C, Kachlany SC.

Comp Med. 2013 Aug;63(4):331-7.


Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin utilizes a cholesterol recognition/amino acid consensus site for membrane association.

Brown AC, Balashova NV, Epand RM, Epand RF, Bragin A, Kachlany SC, Walters MJ, Du Y, Boesze-Battaglia K, Lally ET.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 9;288(32):23607-21. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.486654. Epub 2013 Jun 21.


Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin on endothelial cells.

Dietmann A, Millonig A, Combes V, Couraud PO, Kachlany SC, Grau GE.

Microb Pathog. 2013 Aug-Sep;61-62:43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 May 9.


Prophage induction in lysogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cells co-cultured with human gingival fibroblasts, and its effect on leukotoxin release.

Stevens RH, de Moura Martins Lobo Dos Santos C, Zuanazzi D, de Accioly Mattos MB, Ferreira DF, Kachlany SC, Tinoco EM.

Microb Pathog. 2013 Jan;54:54-9. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2012.09.005. Epub 2012 Sep 27.


Genome sequence of Kingella kingae septic arthritis isolate PYKK081.

Kaplan JB, Lo C, Xie G, Johnson SL, Chain PS, Donnelly R, Kachlany SC, Balashova NV.

J Bacteriol. 2012 Jun;194(11):3017. doi: 10.1128/JB.00421-12.


Leukotoxin (Leukothera®) targets active leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) protein and triggers a lysosomal mediated cell death pathway.

DiFranco KM, Gupta A, Galusha LE, Perez J, Nguyen TV, Fineza CD, Kachlany SC.

J Biol Chem. 2012 May 18;287(21):17618-27. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.314674. Epub 2012 Mar 30.


Gangliosides block Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA)-mediated hemolysis.

Forman MS, Nishikubo JB, Han RK, Le A, Balashova NV, Kachlany SC.

Toxins (Basel). 2010 Dec;2(12):2824-36. doi: 10.3390/toxins2122824. Epub 2010 Dec 14.


HIV envelope gp120 activates LFA-1 on CD4 T-lymphocytes and increases cell susceptibility to LFA-1-targeting leukotoxin (LtxA).

Hioe CE, Tuen M, Vasiliver-Shamis G, Alvarez Y, Prins KC, Banerjee S, Nádas A, Cho MW, Dustin ML, Kachlany SC.

PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23202. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023202. Epub 2011 Aug 5.


In vitro synergism between LFA-1 targeting leukotoxin (Leukothera™) and standard chemotherapeutic agents in leukemia cells.

Gupta A, Le A, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC.

Leuk Res. 2011 Nov;35(11):1498-505. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2011.05.017. Epub 2011 Jun 12.


Resolution of psoriasis by a leukocyte-targeting bacterial protein in a humanized mouse model.

Stenderup K, Rosada C, Dam TN, Salerno E, Belinka BA, Kachlany SC.

J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Oct;131(10):2033-9. doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.161. Epub 2011 Jun 9.


Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by Kingella kingae exopolysaccharide.

Bendaoud M, Vinogradov E, Balashova NV, Kadouri DE, Kachlany SC, Kaplan JB.

J Bacteriol. 2011 Aug;193(15):3879-86. doi: 10.1128/JB.00311-11. Epub 2011 May 20.


Significance of wall structure, macromolecular composition, and surface polymers to the survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

Jenkins MB, Eaglesham BS, Anthony LC, Kachlany SC, Bowman DD, Ghiorse WC.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Mar;76(6):1926-34. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02295-09. Epub 2010 Jan 22. Erratum in: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Aug;76(15):5334.


Anti-leukemia activity of a bacterial toxin with natural specificity for LFA-1 on white blood cells.

Kachlany SC, Schwartz AB, Balashova NV, Hioe CE, Tuen M, Le A, Kaur M, Mei Y, Rao J.

Leuk Res. 2010 Jun;34(6):777-85. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2009.08.022. Epub 2009 Sep 10.


Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LtxC is required for leukotoxin activity and initial interaction between toxin and host cells.

Balashova NV, Shah C, Patel JK, Megalla S, Kachlany SC.

Gene. 2009 Aug 15;443(1-2):42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2009.05.002. Epub 2009 May 18.


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