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Foods. 2019 Nov 19;8(11). pii: E588. doi: 10.3390/foods8110588.

Authentication of the Geographical Origin of Margarines and Fat-Spread Products from Liquid Chromatographic UV-Absorption Fingerprints and Chemometrics.

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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Av. Sebta, Mhannech II, 93002 Tetouan, Morocco.
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, C/ Fuentenueva, s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain.


Fat-spread products are a stabilized emulsion of water and vegetable oils. The whole fat content can vary from 10 to 90% (w/w). There are different kinds, which are differently named, and their composition depends on the country in which they are produced or marketed. Thus, having analytical solutions to determine geographical origin is required. In this study, some multivariate classification methods are developed and optimised to differentiate fat-spread-related products from different geographical origins (Spain and Morocco), using as an analytical informative signal the instrumental fingerprints, acquired by liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in both normal and reverse phase modes. No sample treatment was applied, and, prior to chromatographic analysis, only the samples were dissolved in n‑hexane. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used as classification methods. In addition, several classification strategies were applied, and performance of the classifications was evaluated applying proper classification metrics. Finally, 100% of samples were correctly classified applying PLS-DA with data collected in reverse phase.


food authentication; liquid chromatography fingerprinting; margarines and spreads; multivariate classification

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