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J Fungi (Basel). 2019 May 11;5(2). pii: E38. doi: 10.3390/jof5020038.

Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Ghana.

Author information

1
Laboratory Unit, New Hope Specialist Hospital, Aflao 00233, Ghana. obkatey91@gmail.com.
2
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box KB-143, Korle-Bu, Accra 00233, Ghana. gapesewu@ug.edu.gh.
3
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box KB-143, Korle-Bu, Accra 00233, Ghana. fscodjoe@chs.edu.gh.
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kumasi Technical University, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. osdjarb@yahoo.com.
5
Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. pfeglo@gmail.com.
6
National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital and the University of Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK. david.denning@manchester.ac.uk.

Abstract

Fungal infections are increasingly becoming common and yet often neglected in developing countries. Information on the burden of these infections is important for improved patient outcomes. The burden of serious fungal infections in Ghana is unknown. We aimed to estimate this burden. Using local, regional, or global data and estimates of population and at-risk groups, deterministic modelling was employed to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Our study revealed that about 4% of Ghanaians suffer from serious fungal infections yearly, with over 35,000 affected by life-threatening invasive fungal infections. Incidence of cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and disseminated histoplasmosis cases in AIDS was estimated at 6275, 12,610 and 724, respectively. Oral and esophageal candidiasis collectively affect 27,100 Ghanaians and 42,653 adult asthmatics are estimated to have fungal asthma. We estimate a prevalence of 12,620 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA and an incidence of 1254 cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Estimated cases of candidemia and candida peritonitis cases were 1446 and 217, respectively. The estimated prevalence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and tinea capitis was 442,621 and 598,840, respectively. Mucormycosis and fungal keratitis each may affect 58 and 810 Ghanaians. These data highlight the urgent need for intensified awareness to improve diagnosis and management.

KEYWORDS:

Ghana; HIV; TB; aspergillosis; candidiasis; fungal infections; tinea capitis

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