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Materials (Basel). 2014 Oct 28;7(11):7217-7225. doi: 10.3390/ma7117217.

Structural Aspects LiNbO₃ Nanoparticles and Their Ferromagnetic Properties.

Author information

1
Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W, University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968, USA. carlos.alejandro.diaz.moreno@gmail.com.
2
Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez, Avenida del Charro #450 N. Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, C.P. 32310, Mexico. rurik.farias@uacj.mx.
3
Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez, Avenida del Charro #450 N. Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, C.P. 32310, Mexico. jose.elizalde@uacj.mx.
4
Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Apdo. Postal 31109, Mexico. jesus.gonzalez@cimav.edu.mx.
5
Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Apdo. Postal 31109, Mexico. abel.hurtado@cimav.edu.mx.
6
Kleberg Advanced Microscopy Center, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. d.bahena.u@gmail.com.
7
Kleberg Advanced Microscopy Center, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. miguel.yacaman@utsa.edu.
8
Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez, Avenida del Charro #450 N. Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, C.P. 32310, Mexico. manuel.ramos@uacj.mx.
9
Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W, University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968, USA. manuel.ramos@uacj.mx.

Abstract

We present a solid-state synthesis of ferromagnetic lithium niobate nanoparticles (LiNbO₃) and their corresponding structural aspects. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatments, two batches of samples with a heat-treated (HT) and non-heat-treated (nHT) reduction at 650 °C in 5% of hydrogen/argon were considered to investigate the multiferroic properties and their corresponding structural aspects; using magnetometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Results indicate the existence of ferromagnetic domains with a magnetic moment per unit cell of 5.24 × 10-3 μB; caused mainly due to voids and defects on the nanoparticle surface, as confirmed by STEM measurements.

KEYWORDS:

ferroelectric; ferromagnetic; lithium niobate; nanoparticles; scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

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