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Materials (Basel). 2012 Mar 12;5(3):432-442. doi: 10.3390/ma5030432.

Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport.

Author information

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado 14740, México. rroshan@cinvestav.mx.
2
Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico. luisca@ifuap.buap.mx.
3
Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo-AAMF, Pachuca 42184, México. rosario.moctezuma@gmail.com.
4
Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Ticoman del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Apartado Postal 07340, D.F., México. jvega@ipn.mx.
5
Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado 14740, México. jvega@ipn.mx.
6
Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado 14740, México. amaldo@cinvestav.mx.

Abstract

Indium doped zinc oxide [ZnO:In] thin films have been deposited at 430°C on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate and indium acetate. Pulverization of the solution was done by ultrasonic excitation. The variations in the electrical, structural, optical, and morphological characteristics of ZnO:In thin films, as a function of both the water content in the starting solution and the substrate temperature, were studied. The electrical resistivity of ZnO:In thin films is not significantly affected with the increase in the water content, up to 200 mL/L; further increase in water content causes an increase in the resistivity of the films. All films show a polycrystalline character, fitting well with the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite-type structure. No preferential growth in samples deposited with the lowest water content was observed, whereas an increase in water content gave rise to a (002) growth. The surface morphology of the films shows a consistency with structure results, as non-geometrical shaped round grains were observed in the case of films deposited with the lowest water content, whereas hexagonal slices, with a wide size distribution were observed in the other cases. In addition, films deposited with the highest water content show a narrow size distribution.

KEYWORDS:

thin solid films; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; zinc oxide

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