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Materials (Basel). 2019 Dec 4;12(24). pii: E4037. doi: 10.3390/ma12244037.

An Experimental Study of the Frictional Properties of Steel Sheets Using the Drawbead Simulator Test.

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Department of Materials Forming and Processing, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powst. Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.
Department of Manufacturing and Production Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powst. Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.
Institute of Technology and Material Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Mäsiarska 74, 04001 Košice, Slovakia.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, State School of Higher Vocational Education, Rynek 1, 38-400 Krosno, Poland.


This article presents the results of an experimental investigation of the frictional resistance arising in a drawbead during sheet metal forming. The frictional characterization of DC04 deep drawing quality steels commonly used in the automotive industry is carried out using a friction simulator. The effects of some parameters of the friction process on the value of the coefficient of friction have been considered in the experimental investigations. The friction tests have been conducted on different strip specimens, lubrication conditions, heights of drawbead and specimen orientations in relation to the sheet rolling direction. The results of drawbead simulator tests demonstrate the relationship that the value of the coefficient of friction of the test sheets without lubrication is higher than in the case of lubricated sheets. The lubricant reduces the coefficient of friction, but the effectiveness of its reduction depends on the drawbead height and lubrication conditions. Moreover, the effectiveness of the reduction of the coefficient of friction by the lubricant depends on the specimen orientation according to the sheet rolling direction. In the drawbead test, the specimens oriented along the rolling direction demonstrate a higher value of coefficient of friction when compared to the samples cut transverse to the rolling direction. The smaller the width of the specimen, the lower the coefficient of friction observed. The difference in the coefficient of friction for the extreme values of the widths of the specimens was about 0.03-0.05. The use of machine oil reduced the coefficient of friction by 0.02-0.03 over the whole range of drawbead heights. Heavy duty lubricant even reduced the frictional resistances by over 50% compared to dry friction conditions. The effectiveness of friction reduction by machine oil does not exceed 30%.


deep drawing; friction; mechanical engineering; sheet metal forming; steel sheet; tribology

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