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Environ Monit Assess. 2016 Jun;188(6):369. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5377-1. Epub 2016 May 26.

Heavy metals from non-exhaust vehicle emissions in urban and motorway road dusts.

Author information

1
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Kraków, Poland. eadamiec@agh.edu.pl.
2
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Kraków, Poland.
3
Faculty of Transport, SUT Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 2A, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.

Abstract

The main sources of non-exhaust vehicular emissions that contribute to road dust are tire, brake and clutch wear, road surface wear, and other vehicle and road component degradation. This study is an attempt to identify and investigate heavy metals in urban and motorway road dusts as well as in dust from brake linings and tires. Road dust was collected from sections of the A-4 motorway in Poland, which is part of European route E40, and from urban roads in Katowice, Poland. Dust from a relatively unpolluted mountain road was collected and examined as a control sample. Selected metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, Sr, Ba, Ti, and Pd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy on a range of size-fractionated road dust and brake lining dust (<20, 20-56, 56-90, 90-250, and >250 μm). The compositions of brake lining and tire dust were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To estimate the degree of potential environmental risk of non-exhaust emissions, comparison with the geochemical background and the calculations of geo-accumulation indices were performed. The finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, especially with Ti, Cu, and Cr, which are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear. Urban dust was, however, more contaminated than motorway dust. It was therefore concluded that brake lining and tire wear strongly contributed to the contamination of road dust.

KEYWORDS:

Brake pad; Geo-accumulation index; Heavy metal; Road dust; Tire

PMID:
27226173
PMCID:
PMC4880625
DOI:
10.1007/s10661-016-5377-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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