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Materials (Basel). 2019 Aug 20;12(16). pii: E2645. doi: 10.3390/ma12162645.

Performance of Foundry Sand Concrete under Ambient and Elevated Temperatures.

Author information

1
Department of Civil Engineering, City University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan. hazratbilal@cusit.edu.pk.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila 47050, Pakistan. hazratbilal@cusit.edu.pk.
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila 47050, Pakistan.
4
Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. skashif@cuiatd.edu.pk.
5
Department of Civil Engineering, City University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan. abid.khg@cusit.edu.pk.
6
College of Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150090, China. abid.khg@cusit.edu.pk.
7
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Waste foundry sand (WFS) is the by-product of the foundry industry. Utilizing it in the construction industry will protect the environment and its natural resources, and enable sustainable construction. WFS was employed in this research as a fractional substitution of natural sand by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in concrete. Several tests, including workability, compressive strength (CS), splitting tensile strength (STS), and flexural strength (FS), ultrasonic pulse velocity (USPV), Schmidt rebound hammer number (RHN), and residual compressive strengths (RCS) tests were performed to understand the behavior of concrete before and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Test findings showed that the strength characteristics were increased by including WFS at all the phases. For a substitute rate of 30%, the maximum compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength were observed. Replacement with WFS enhanced the 28-day compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength by 7.82%, 9.87%, and 10.35%, respectively at a 30% replacement level, and showed continuous improvement until the age of 91 days. The RCS of foundry sand concrete after one month of air cooling at ambient temperature after exposing to 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C was found to be in the range of 67.50% to 71.00%, 57.50% to 61.50%, 49.00% to 51.50%, 38% to 41%, 31% to 35% and 26% to 31.5% of unheated compressive strength values for 0% to 40% replacement of WFS, respectively. The RCS decreases with increasing temperature; however, with increasing WFS, the RCS was enhanced in comparison to the control samples. In addition, the replacement of 30% yielded excellent outcomes. Hence, this study provides a sustainable construction material that will preserve the Earth's natural resources and provide a best use of WFS.

KEYWORDS:

elevated temperatures; explosive spalling; foundry sand concrete; residual compressive strength; strength properties; ultrasonic tests

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