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BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 22;15:366. doi: 10.1186/s12879-015-1101-y.

Molecular epidemiology study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs in Indonesia.

Author information

1
Institute for Vector and Reservoir Disease Control Research and Development (IVRDCRD), Salatiga, Indonesia. vivi_l@litbang.depkes.go.id.
2
Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH), NIHRD, MoH-RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. nellypuspa@gmail.com.
3
Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH), NIHRD, MoH-RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. lutfahrifati@yahoo.com.
4
Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH), NIHRD, MoH-RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. triyanisoekarso@gmail.com.
5
Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH), NIHRD, MoH-RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. melatiwati@ymail.com.
6
Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH), NIHRD, MoH-RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. syamsidar.litbang@gmail.com.
7
Department of Clinical Pathology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. liesratna68@gmail.com.
8
Department of Clinical Pathology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. nur.izzatun.nafsir@gmail.com.
9
Department of Clinical Pathology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. idaparwati2008@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis helps to understand the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and to address evolutionary questions about the disease spread. Certain genotypes also have implications for the spread of infection and treatment. Indonesia is a very diverse country with a population with multiple ethnicities and cultures and a history of many trade and tourism routes. This study describes the first attempt to map the molecular epidemiology of TB in the Indonesian archipelago.

METHOD:

From 2008 to 2011, 404 clinical specimens from sputum-smear (SS+) TB patients, age ≥15 years, were collected from 16 TB referral primary health centers (PHC) in 16 provincial capitals in Indonesia. Susceptibility testing to first line drugs was conducted for 262 samples using the agar proportion method as per WHO guidelines. Spoligotyping was done on all samples.

RESULTS:

Ninety-three of the 404 samples (23 %) were from the Beijing family, making it the predominant family in the country. However, the geographic distribution of the family varied by region with 86/294 (29.3 %) in the western region, 6/72 (8.3 %) in the central region, and 2/72 (2.8 %) in the eastern region (p < 0.001). The predominant genotype in the central and eastern regions was from the East-African-Indian (EAI) family, comprising 15.3 % (11/72), and 26.3 % (10/38) of the isolates, respectively. Drug susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs was tested in 262 isolates. 162 (61.8 %) isolates were susceptible to all TB drugs, 70 (26.7 %) were mono-resistant 16 (6.1 %) were poly-resistant, and 14 (5.4 %) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The proportion of Beijing family isolates in the susceptible, mono-resistant, poly-resistant, and MDR groups was 33/162 (20.4 %), 28/70 (40.0 %), 6/16 (37.5 %), and 3/14 (21.4 %), respectively. Overall, resistance of the Beijing family isolates to any of the first line TB drugs was significantly higher than non-Beijing families [37/71 (52.1 %) vs. 63/191 (33.0 %) (p-value = 0.003)].

CONCLUSION:

The distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Indonesia showed high genetic diversity and tended to vary by geographic regions. Drug susceptibility testing confirmed that the Beijing family of M.tb in Indonesia exhibited greater resistance to first line anti-TB drugs than did other families.

PMID:
26297576
PMCID:
PMC4546281
DOI:
10.1186/s12879-015-1101-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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