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Materials (Basel). 2015 Sep 25;8(10):6640-6657. doi: 10.3390/ma8105328.

Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts.

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Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Kao-Yuan University, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan.
Chong Cheng Fastener Corporation, 69 Da-Shun Rd. Guan-Miau, Tainan 71844, Taiwan.


Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.


Archard wear; Taguchi quality method; cold forging fastener; hex flange nut

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