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Bioresour Technol. 2010 May;101(10):3765-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.079. Epub 2010 Jan 15.

Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts.

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National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.


The solid oxide catalysts derived from waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification of palm olein oil. The shell materials were calcined in air at 800 degrees C with optimum time of 2-4h to transform calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. All catalysts showed the high biodiesel production activity over 90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2h, whilst the eggshell-derived catalyst showed comparable activity to the one derived from commercial CaCO(3). The catalytic activity was in accordance with the surface area of and the Ca content in the catalysts.

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