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Materials (Basel). 2014 Apr 10;7(4):2890-2912. doi: 10.3390/ma7042890.

Interaction and UV-Stability of Various Organic Capping Agents on the Surface of Anatase Nanoparticles.

Author information

1
Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/16, Vienna 1060, Austria. mohsin_qau5@yahoo.com.
2
Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/16, Vienna 1060, Austria. n.zahn@mx.uni-saarland.de.
3
Saarland University, Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Am Markt Zeile 3, Saarbrücken 66125, Germany. n.zahn@mx.uni-saarland.de.
4
Current address: Swerea SICOMP AB, Argongatan 30, Mölndal 43122, Sweden. n.zahn@mx.uni-saarland.de.
5
Saarland University, Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Am Markt Zeile 3, Saarbrücken 66125, Germany. guido.kickelbick@uni-saarland.de.

Abstract

Anatase nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were surface-functionalized with long alkyl chain coupling agents as compatibilizers for a nonpolar environment, containing different anchor groups for surface interaction namely phosphonate (dodecyl phosphonate), carboxylate (dodecanoic acid), sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and amine (dodecyl amine). It was shown that the surface of the nanoparticles can be functionalized with the various surface groups applying similar reaction conditions. The kind of surface interaction was analyzed applying FTIR spectroscopy. The phosphonate and the carboxylate groups interact with the surface via quite strong covalent or coordinative interactions, respectively. The sulfate and amine based coupling agents on the other hand exhibit electrostatic interactions. UV stability studies of the surface bound groups revealed different degradation mechanisms for the various functionalities and moreover showed that phosphonates are the most stable among the investigated surface capping groups.

KEYWORDS:

nanoparticles; photocatalytic decomposition; surface functionalization; titania

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