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Toxicon. 2013 Dec 1;75:148-59. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.06.005. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

High accuracy mass spectrometry comparison of Conus bandanus and Conus marmoreus venoms from the South Central Coast of Vietnam.

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CNRS, Centre de Recherche de Gif - FRC3115, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard - FRC2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement - UPR3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; University of Nha Trang, Institute of Biotechnology and Environment, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa, Viet Nam. Electronic address:


Cone snail (genus Conus) venoms provide a rich source of small bioactive peptides known as conopeptides or conotoxins, which are highly interesting in pharmacological studies for new drug discovery. Conus species have evolved expressing a variety of conopeptides, adapted to the biological targets of their own specific preys at their living environments. Therefore, the potential proteomic evaluation of Conus venom components, poorly studied, is of great interest. Early studies supposed about 5% overlap in venom peptides from different Conus species. In this study, we compare using nano-liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, the molluscivorous Conus bandanus venom to that of its close-relative Conus marmoreus of the South Central Coast of Vietnam. With this approach, we demonstrate with high precision that 92 common conopeptides are present in the venom of the two mollusc-hunting cone snails, representing 24.4% (out of 376 peptides) and 18.4% (out of 499 peptides) of C. bandanus and C. marmoreus components, respectively. The proteomic comparison of the two close-relative interspecies suggests both common and different strategies for mature conopeptide production in the two species. The overall estimation of putative conopeptide disulphide bridges reveals 75% and 61% of "disulphide-rich" peptides in C. bandanus and C. marmoreus venom components, respectively. The same amino acid sequence for Bn1.1 and Mr1.1, determined at the genomic level, was also found in the two venoms, besides other common conopeptides. Confidently, the broader distribution of C. bandanus compared to C. marmoreus guarantee new opportunities for discovering conopeptides with original pharmacological properties.


Cone snail venom; Conopeptide; Conus bandanus; Conus marmoreus; IAA; Mass spectrometry; PD; Proteome Discoverer; TFA; TIC; iodoacetamide; nano-liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry; nanoLC–ESI-MS or MS/MS; total ion current; trifluoroacetic acid

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