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J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2019 Jul 1;19(7):4090-4096. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2019.16267.

Thermochemical Nitriding and Oxynitriding of Ti Alloys.

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Physico-Mechanical Institute of National Academy of Sciences, Lviv 79601, Ukraine.
Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, SZAB Campus, Khairpur Mir's 66020, Pakistan.
School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea.


Nitrided and oxynitrided coatings that formed on α alloy (c.p.-Ti), near-α alloy (Ti-2.1Al-2.5Zr), (α + β) alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and β alloy (Ti-6Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V) were microstructurally characterized. The nitriding at 950 °C and PN₂ ═ 105 Pa for 5 h formed TiN, Ti₂N, and α-Ti(N) layers from the surface. The nitriding tendency increased in the order of β alloy, (α + β) alloy, near-α alloy, and α alloy. The Ti-N coatings transformed to Ti-N-O coatings when the nitrided alloys were exposed to PO₂ ═ 10-2 Pa during cooling at the final stage of the nitriding. This oxynitriding process led to the formation of TiNxO1-x, Ti₂N, and α-Ti(N,O) layers from the surface where a small amount of rutile-TiO₂ coexisted. Oxynitriding was more effective than nitriding in increasing the surface microhardness, with the former accumulating more compressive residual stress than the latter.


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