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Phys Med. 2019 Jul;63:87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.05.026. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Design optimization of a pixel-based range telescope for proton computed tomography.

Author information

1
Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: helge.pettersen@helse-bergen.no.
2
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
3
Department for Theoretical Physics, Heavy-Ion Research Group, Wigner RCP of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
4
Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University/Nikhef, Utrecht, Netherlands.
5
Department of Computing, Mathematics and Physics, Western Norway University of Applied Science, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
6
Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
7
Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway; Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
8
Institute for Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1/A Pázmány P. Sétány, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
9
Department of Physics, University of Oslo, 0371 Oslo, Norway.
10
Department of Biomedical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
11
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway; Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

A pixel-based range telescope for tracking particles during proton imaging is described. The detector applies a 3D matrix of stacked Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with fast readout speeds. This study evaluates different design alternatives of the range telescope on basis of the protons' range accuracy and the track reconstruction efficiency.

METHOD:

Detector designs with different thicknesses of the energy-absorbing plates between each sensor layer are simulated using the GATE/Geant4 Monte Carlo software. Proton tracks traversing the detector layers are individually reconstructed, and a Bragg curve fitting procedure is applied for the calculation of each proton's range.

RESULTS:

Simulations show that the setups with 4 mm and thinner absorber layers of aluminum have a low range uncertainty compared to the physical range straggling, systematic errors below 0.3 mm water equivalent thickness and a track reconstruction capability exceeding ten million protons per second.

CONCLUSIONS:

In order to restrict the total number of layers and to yield the required tracking and range resolution properties, a design recommendation is reached where the proposed range telescope applies 3.5 mm thick aluminum absorber slabs between each sensor layer.

KEYWORDS:

Detector optimization; Monte Carlo simulation; Proton computed tomography; Track reconstruction

PMID:
31221414
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.05.026

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