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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 25;19(3). pii: E647. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030647.

Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants-Progresses and Challenges.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. monik.kim@gmail.com.
2
Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. soumobios@gmail.com.
3
Department of Botany, Jangipur College, University of Kalyani, West Bengal 742213, India. soumobios@gmail.com.
4
Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. bhatlasc@gmail.com.

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms of sodium (Na⁺) influx, effective compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants is crucial to manipulate Na⁺ accumulation and assure the maintenance of low Na⁺ concentration in the cytosol and, hence, plant tolerance to salt stress. Na⁺ influx across the plasma membrane in the roots occur mainly via nonselective cation channels (NSCCs). Na⁺ is compartmentalized into vacuoles by Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers (NHXs). Na⁺ efflux from the plant roots is mediated by the activity of Na⁺/H⁺ antiporters catalyzed by the salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) protein. In animals, ouabain (OU)-sensitive Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase (a P-type ATPase) mediates sodium efflux. The evolution of P-type ATPases in higher plants does not exclude the possibility of sodium efflux mechanisms similar to the Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase-dependent mechanisms characteristic of animal cells. Using novel fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometric methodologies, an OU-sensitive sodium efflux system has recently been reported to be physiologically active in roots. This review summarizes and analyzes the current knowledge on Na⁺ influx, compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants in response to salt stress.

KEYWORDS:

K+-ATPase; Na+; ouabain; ouabain-sensitive ATPase; sodium efflux; sodium influx

PMID:
29495332
PMCID:
PMC5877508
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19030647
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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