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Sensors (Basel). 2018 Nov 9;18(11). pii: E3844. doi: 10.3390/s18113844.

Online Moisture Measurement of Bio Fuel at a Paper Mill Employing a Microwave Resonator.

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Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Maarintie 8, 02150 Espoo, Finland.


This paper investigates online moisture measurement of biofuel employing a strip line cavity resonator at approximately 366 MHz, attached above and below the conveyor belt. An existing sensor design is modified for the factory assembly, and the correct operation has been tested prior to this paper with a small number of measurement points and collected reference samples (n = 67). The purpose is now to concentrate on the accuracy of the measurement and increase the number of measurement points (n = 367). The measurements were made in 5 different lots, and the thickness and moisture properties of the biomaterial mat were varied between minimum and maximum levels by adjusting the settings of the belt filter press that presses pulp slush into a mat. In order to further reduce inaccuracy, at the maximum one standard deviation was allowed from the average height of the equivalent water layer for each dataset, and consequently the number of samples was reduced to 235. A linear fit and a parabola fit were determined for thickness of the equivalent water layer vs. the relative resonant frequency shift: R² = 0.82 and R² = 0.78.


bio fuel; microwave resonator; moisture measurement; paper mill

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