Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nutrients. 2019 Sep 9;11(9). pii: E2158. doi: 10.3390/nu11092158.

Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatrics, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy. francesco.cadario@gmail.com.
2
IRCAD (Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases), 28100 Novara, Italy. francesco.cadario@gmail.com.
3
Diabetes Research Institute Federation, Miami, FL 33163, USA. francesco.cadario@gmail.com.
4
Division of Pediatrics, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.
5
Department Dietetic and Clinical NutritionUniversity Hospital of Novara, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.
6
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, UniversitàdegliStudi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.
7
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences (DiSFEB), Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Applied Nutrition, UniversitàdegliStudi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.
8
Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital of Novara, 28100 Novara, Italy.
9
IRCAD (Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases), 28100 Novara, Italy.
10
Immunology, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.
11
Medical Direction University Hospital of Novara, 28100 Novara, Italy.
12
Diabetes Research Institute Federation, Miami, FL 33163, USA. CRicordi@miami.edu.
13
Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. CRicordi@miami.edu.

Abstract

Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acid (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improves type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation. This cohort study, preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT), is aimed at evaluating, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean diet and an intake of cholecalciferol of 1000U/day from T1D onset, if ω-3 co-supplementation preserves the residual endogen insulin secretion (REIS). Therefore, the cohort of 22 "new onsets" of 2017 received ω-3 (eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60 mg/kg/day), and were compared retrospectively vs. the 37 "previous onsets" without ω-3 supplementation. Glicosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), the daily insulin demand (IU/Kg/day) and IDAA1c, a composite index (calculated as IU/Kg/day × 4 + HbA1c%), as surrogates of REIS, were evaluated at recruitment (T0) and 12 months later (T12). In the ω-3 supplemented group, dietary intakes were evaluated at T0 and T12. As an outcome, a decreased insulin demand (p < 0.01), particularly as pre-meal boluses (p < 0.01), and IDAA1c (p < 0.05), were found in the ω-3 supplemented group, while HbA1c% was not significantly different. Diet analysis in the ω-3 supplemented group, at T12 vs. T0, highlighted that the intake of arachidonic acid (AA) decreased (p < 0.01). At T0, the AA intake was inversely correlated with HbA1c% (p < 0.05; r;. 0.411). In conclusion, the results suggest that vitamin D plus ω-3 co-supplementation as well as AA reduction in the Mediterranean diet display benefits for T1D children at onset and deserve further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

AA/EPA ratio; DHA; EPA; arachidonic acid; cholecalciferol; honeymoon period; omega3; remission period; type 1 diabetes

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center