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Elife. 2015 Apr 28;4:e06416. doi: 10.7554/eLife.06416.

Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity.

Collaborators (2853)

Abbazia P, Abernathy K, Abesamis A, Abidi SA, Abrahim M, Abrams C, Achimovich A, Ackerman B, Acosta J, Actis LA, Adair TL, Adame J, Adams SD, Adams J, Adams KB, Adekunle RF, Ademuwagun C, Adjei-Danquah EJ, Adkins N, Agarwal S, Agarwal R, Agbayani G, Agee R, Aggarwal S, Agoro T, Aguirre C, Ahler R, Ahmad S, Ahmed A, Ahn M, Aiken S, Aittama K, Ajaz BA, Akins A, Akintayo B, Akojie F, Al-Atrache Z, Alabi OO, Alakija O, Alapati N, Alba C, Albertolle P, Alejandro Ajsivinac P, Alexander C, Alexander LM, Alexander R, Aley S, Alfonso A, Alford RF, Ali S, Alicea-Cabrera R, Alkanani M, Alkhalaf D, Allen BJ, Allen EA, Allen E, Alluri V, Alonzo F, Alvarado E, Alvarado-Vega D, Alvelo-Aviles A, Alvisi M, Amick K, Amweg KM, Anders KR, Anderson AG, Anderson A, Anderson K, Anderson M, Anderson J, Anderson KM, Anderson P, Anderson SL, Andle J, Anguiano N, Antis N, Antoine A, Anton T, Anway A, Anyan C, Apiz-Saab J, Apodaca J, Appleyard R, Aqel S, Arakelyan M, Arceneaux J, Archer J, Archer K, Ardeshna NS, Arduino LT, Ares M, Argueta LB, Arhar T, Arighi J, Armstrong AJ, Armstrong N, Arnold C, Arnold E, Arnold K, Aron R, Arora N, Arrington C, Asadourian L, Asalone K, Ascolillo A, Ashcraft J, Ashley BD, Asinas C, Asuzu CC, Auces A, Audette R, Aultman M, Austin Q, Austriaco N, Averkiou M, Avery T, Aviles I, Aviles-Rivera A, Awdziejczyk L, Aziz F, Aziz R, Babbs G, Babu N, Bach S, Bachman M, Baer TD, Bagienska J, Bah D, Baig H, Bailey A, Bailey R, Baker P, Balish MF, Ball S, Banaszak E, Bandurski S, Banerji D, Banken L, Banks B, Banning WJ, Bao C, Barbazuk WB, Barber NR, Barber JR, Barber J, Bari R, Barker L, Barna A, Barner E, Barnes R, Barnhart BH, Barr SN, Barrera AL, Barron A, Barshop WD, Bartels N, Bartholomay K, Bashir A, Bastille K, Bateh S, Bates T, Batra N, Batty M, Baudin R, Bauer V, Bauerle C, Bayles IM, Beach A, Beacham G, Bean L, Beaty S, Beaudoin T, Becker-Krail DD, Beckman M, Beckwith C, Beehler B, Beekly B, Behl A, Belfield K, Belisle Haley C, Bell A, Bell B, Bell D, Bell M, Bell T, Bellotti A, Benczik R, Benjamin RC, Benjamin P, Benner E, Benoit R, Bense N, Bensel B, Benson G, Bergh H, Berk RE, Berkes C, Bermudez J, Bernal J, Bernal D, Bernardo TJ, Bernicchi A, Berning M, Berrios-Lopez JE, Berrios-Pagan L, Berrios-Ruiz J, Berry H, Berry H, Beseler K, Best AA, Best RR, Bestul N, Betancourt V, Betancourt-Torres A, Beutner R, Bhakta Y, Bhatti N, Bhimbra SB, Bhuiyan S, Bibeau T, Binongcal MA, Binsol M, Black M, Blaine W, Blair C, Blair P, Blake A, Blake S, Blankenship B, Blemker M, Blevins K, Blumer L, Boas K, Boatwright JL, Bodnar BH, Bogolin M, Bohn A, Bohner A, Bohner A, Boisseranc C, Bollivar D, Bond L, Bonilla JA, Bonner J, Bonnette D, Boone A, Boone K, Boozalis A, Boozalis JA, Borchik E, Borgert B, Borges KM, Borja D, Boroday J, Borova D, Borque M, Bostrom V, Bottomley M, Bowen J, Boys IN, Bradley K, Bradley K, Bradshaw J, Bragg J, Brahm K, Brandley VE, Brannan A, Branton C, Branton C, Brashears CB, Bratsch S, Braun EL, Braun MA, Brautman G, Breakwell DP, Bredereck M, Brehove L, Breitenberger C, Breithaupt J, Bretzmann J, Brewer L, Bricker JS, Briell VC, Brighton AK, Brink K, Broadway L, Brooker JW, Broughton M, Brown A, Brown A, Brown B, Brown E, Brown G, Brown H, Brown J, Brown M, Brownstead HA, Brownstone C, Bruce R, Bruckbauer A, Brumbaugh L, Brusko S, Brusnahan A, Brutofsky C, Bryan W, Bryant H, Bryant S, Brzoska RM, Bual H, Buchanan B, Buechner C, Buhalo DJ, Buhr T, Bui DX, Bulfin M, Bunker S, Burak M, Burdette S, Burger E, Burghgraef A, Burghgraef K, Burke K, Burkhead V, Burkholder T, Burlingame A, Burnett SH, Burr A, Burton D, Burton T, Bushey M, Busser K, Bussian N, Bute M, Butela KA, Butler M, Bynum-Cooper D, Byrne M, Byrnes D, Cabrera-Mino C, Caceres-Velazquez C, Caelwarts J, Cain G, Caldararo M, Caldwell DJ, Caldwell TS, Calicdan C, Caliva CM, Callaghan CJ, Calley B, Callison WE, Calvert L, Camacho J, Campbell A, Campbell W, Campbell IW, Campbell JL, Campbell L, Campbell R, Canter JA, Carbone N, Cardona-Portalatin E, Cardwell A, Carlin L, Carlisi E, Carlisle K, Carlson A, Carlstrom C, Carpenter E, Carpino J, Carr K, Carroll S, Carry C, Carson S, Carter J, Carter L, Carter L, Carter M, Caruso SM, Carzo S, Cascione D, Casey T, Casiano-Real M, Caskin T, Cassidy C, Cassoday J, Castillo P, Castillo Silva B, Casto-Markosky A, Caughron E, Caulkins H, Cavallarin MD, Cavedon W, Cedeno Garcia E, Cerda F, Cerda N, Cerkovnik L, Cervantes J, Cervantes J, Cescon J, Chakrabarti P, Chalissery S, Chamberlin M, Champney C, Chang DW, Chang JY, Chang M, Chaparro A, Chappell J, Charlop R, Chase A, Chatterjee W, Chavez K, Chavez V, Chen A, Chen A, Chen X, Chen YT, Chen X, Cheng JC, Chesky AA, Cheston L, Chetlapalli MM, Chew D, Chhor BK, Chilinski CM, Chitta P, Cho AW, Chockalingam LD, Chou J, Chow T, Church J, Churchill R, Churilla B, Ciardiello E, Ciccarello B, Cidambi V, Cimo A, Clark C, Clark M, Clark Z, Clase KL, Clement B, Clevenger D, Clinton T, Cody BJ, Coelho R, Coffee S, Coggins G, Coghlan K, Cohen K, Cohen LB, Coker JK, Colburn T, Cole A, Cole K, Coleman A, Colicchio M, Collin E, Collins CM, Collins JM, Collins J, Collins T, Colombini K, Colquhoun J, Colunga JE, Colvin K, Comeaux R, Conahan B, Cone D, Cone E, Connolly R, Connors A, Connors S, Consiglio P, Consing K, Conti D, Coody T, Cook S, Cookson J, Coomer C, Cooper C, Cooper J, Corbacio CE, Cordero-Bernard G, Corley S, Cornely K, Correa E, Cosby E, Costello M, Cota C, Cotto-Berríos I, Cotto-Rosario A, Courtois M, Cox A, Cox M, Cox M, Craig E, Crawford L, Crawford M, Creed C, Crespo-Vega VA, Cronenweth C, Cross T, Crossley C, Cruz-Garcia L, Cui Zhou D, Cullen R, Cullen N, Cullett A, Culpepper S, Culver J, Cunanan N, Cunha C, Cunningham R, Cunningham T, Cuoco M, Curcillo CP, Curiel E, Curlin J, Curry R, Cusmiani M, Cutting CL, Czaja L, Czarnecki KW, Czyszczon E, D'Addario T, Dahal S, Dahl A, Daily K, Damiani T, Dammann K, Damoiseaux JS, Dang D, Danguilan S, Daniels C, Daniels RL, Danner B, Darcy MA, Dargyte M, Darko R, Darwiche A, Das A, DaSilva T, Dasin A, Dasiuk E, Dauenhauer C, Davidson S, Davis HL, Davis K, Davis D, Davis JS, Davis K, Davis M, Davis WB, Davis-Kozik AJ, Davis-Vazquez ZX, Day A, Days J, De La Cruz N, De La Luz J, De Los Santos C, De Mattos M, DeBernardo AJ, Debro L, DeCero S, DeCou S, DeGlopper K, Dehn A, Deihs M, DeJong RJ, Delaney R, Delenko A, Delesalle VA, Delgadillo H, DeLong Z, DelPonte M, Deming KE, Demming C, Deneweth RM, Deng L, DeNigris DM, Dennehy JJ, Denny S, Dent J, Denver DR, DeRiso A, Desai PP, DeSantis D, Deshpande R, Deutsch A, Devaraju V, DeVault B, Devine S, DeVore EB, DeVries J, DeWald B, Dhanoa J, Diamond M, Diaz C, Diaz-Medero F, DiCandia M, Dickson L, Dieleman L, Dimmick JT, DiNitto S, Diorio-Toth LE, Disteso A, Divekar N, DiVito M, Dixit R, Doak A, Dobbins J, Dockstader P, Dolan S, Domingo E, Dominguez B, Dominguez-Rodriguez E, Donna J, Donohue JP, Dorcin M, Doring E, Dorit R, Dorn S, Doros-Bonciu V, Dosanjh A, Doughty M, Douglas J, Doyle E, Doyle M, Driscoll N, Driver K, Drum BE, Du AY, Dubois H, Duckworth M, Duex E, Duff M, Duffy J, Dums J, Dunbar D, Dunkerley C, Dunlap-Smith A, Dunn M, Dunworth M, Duong QV, Duong S, Duplechain B, Durham M, Durham RJ, Dykhouse M, Dzikowski M, Earley K, Early BJ, Ebalo NA, Eben A, Eberts E, Edewaard E, Edgington NP, Edwards J, Eguiluz M, Eichman BM, Ekdahl R, Elangovan A, Elgin SC, Ellis SA, Elorette CE, ElSayed M, Ely S, Emanuel A, Emard N, Enabore JA, Encarnacion P, Enciso N, Ende R, Engelkes A, Engelsen A, Engle JM, English BV, Enriquez S, Ensink E, Erb ML, Erdenejargal G, Erlich J, Escareno-Linger D, Escobar D, Esguerra J, Espada-Ramos M, Esposito K, Esposito LA, Esquinca M, Estave P, Estes A, Estrada C, Estrada-Rivera Y, Ettinger AS, Evangelista ND, Evans J, Evans M, Everding T, Eyerman M, Ezzo DR, Fadoju D, Fahad M, Fahey JG, Falahat M, Falch E, Falk AL, Fang Y, Fangman M, Farina J, Farmer CN, Farooq A, Farooq S, Farrakhan K, Farran E, Farrell J, Fasoranti T, Fatukasi M, Faughn J, Feal E, Feathers C, Feeney M, Feldhake J, Feldker Z, Feliciano-Figueroa J, Feng C, Ferguson CL, Ferguson JR, Fernandes A, Fernandez AG, Fernandez-Martinez M, Fernandez-Rodriguez P, Fernando M, Ferrazares A, Ferroni GJ, Feuer K, Fields A, Fieman R, Filliger LZ, Fillman C, Filut J, Findley AM, Fine AW, Fiorenza J, Fisher M, Fisher JN, Fitzgerald J, Flaherty NM, Flatgard B, Fleet T, Fleming R, Florea A, Flores D, Flores Castillo I, Flounory S, Flowers CE, Flowers M, Focht K, Fogliano R, Fong C, Fong LM, Fontenot A, Ford L, Ford J, Fore B, Foreman R, Forman KM, Forrester S, Forsyth KS, Forsyth MH, Foster G, Foster LA, Fowler D, Fowler K, Fox C, Fox TM, Foxe J, Fram E, Francisco S, Francolini RD, Frangos S, Frankel S, Frawley R, Frazier R, Freeman CM, Freeman C, Freitas V, Fridland S, Friedberg I, Friel S, Frischer GM, Froes CD, Froud J, Frownfelter A, Fruchte M, Fu K, Fudge K, Fuentes AL, Fulmore C, Fung HY, Fusco K, Fyffe D, Gaddis J, Gager C, Gagne E, Gagnon M, Gajeton J, Galassi ME, Galatowitsch R, Gallagher C, Gallardo J, Gallegos I, Galletta J, Galvelis T, Gandhi AY, Gandy R, Gannon D, Garcia A, Garcia C, Garcia K, Garcia O, Garcia S, Garcia-Delgado K, Garcia-Ruiz H, Gardner AV, Garner J, Garrett J, Garthe L, Gatt SM, Gaytan B, Gebreselassie A, Geffen K, Geiger S, Geleynse K, Gelke E, Gendron W, Genkil J, Gensen C, George K, Geraci K, Gharabegian S, Ghosh K, Gibbon BC, Gibbs Z, Gibson A, Giddens K, Gilbert D, Gilbert N, Gillette C, Gillispie B, Gilmore S, Ginjpalli M, Gissendanner CR, Giulietti J, Giuste F, Givler J, Go M, Godfrey GW, Goebel E, Goethe EA, Goins A, Golebiewska UP, Golyski P, Gomez-Fuentes N, Gomez-Garcia G, Gonzales J, Gonzalez A, Gonzalez G, Gonzalez B, Gonzalez ED, Gonzalez J, Gonzalez S, Gonzalez Y, Gonzalez-Berrios J, Gonzalez-Menendez L, Gonzalez-Pagan K, Goodwin B, Goodwin E, Goodwin M, Goralski S, Gorman S, Goss A, Gotsatsenko M, Gough E, Govindan JA, Gowaty HM, Gradishar J, Grady N, Graff H, Graine A, Grainger JM, Grajales M, Grajeda J, Grajeda M, Grandaw B, Grant J, Grant D, Granville R, Graven K, Graves A, Graves A, Grawe A, Gray A, Gray K, Gray K, Gray VC, Greene E, Greenfield KL, Gregory S, Grendler J, Gries J, Griffard P, Griffin A, Griffin AK, Griffith M, Grijalva P, Grillo W, Grimes M, Grome K, Grose JH, Gross O, Groth A, Grove H, Gruber C, Guan KZ, Guardiola-Diaz H, Guay B, Guerra G, Guerra SL, Guertin SW, Guevara N, Gugssa A, Guild N, Guilford N, Guillory D, Guillory Q, Guiza B, Gulamani S, Gunawardena ND, Guo J, Guo S, Gupta A, Gupta S, Gustafson EL, Guthrie N, Gutierrez A, Gutierrez J, Gutierrez Ruiz O, Guzman I, Ha SJ, Haake B, Hackel J, Hadik A, Hagen K, Halder R, Hale RH, Hall E, Hall J, Hall M, Halleran A, Hallman M, Hallwachs A, Halpern C, Hamar P, Hamdan J, Hamil A, Hamilton E, Hamilton K, Hammock T, Hammonds-Odie LP, Hampton M, Haney SA, Hansen AW, Harbaugh B, Hardison E, Hardnett C, Hardwick SL, Hardy R, Hare V, Hargrove R, Harmon N, Harmson J, Haro J, Harper J, Harper R, Harrigan D, Harris A, Harris C, Harris J, Harris K, Harrison JN, Harrison J, Harrison M, Hart A, Hartman M, Hartzog GA, Harvell R, Harvey J, Harvey SE, Harvey V, Hashiguchi P, Hashmi H, Hasircoglu S, Haskell KJ, Hastert R, Hasty P, Hatherill JR, Hausmann S, Hawk T, Hawkins CB, Hawthorne H, Hawtrey S, Hayden K, Haydock J, Hayes M, Hayes M, Haynes C, Haynie M, Hays S, He D, He Z, He K, He S, Healy KE, Heaver S, Heckman E, Hederstedt E, Hefner M, Hegarty EM, Hegarty N, Hein C, Henderson B, Henderson MS, Hendricks H, Henley B, Henry C, Henry L, Henry R, Henry-Grant SK, Hensle E, Hensleigh RM, Hernandez V, Herold E, Hester A, Heyn SA, Higby H, Highfield C, Hilario G, Hill H, Hill RZ, Hillson S, Hinojoza BE, Hinson D, Hirai TL, Hirsch A, Hoang H, Hocker M, Hodgson K, Hoevemeyer K, Hoff T, Hoffman H, Hogan G, Hoge SE, Holden R, Holder A, Holder C, Hollingsworth C, Hollis J, Hollowell G, Holmes GM, Holmes L, Holtz B, Holz N, Homan D, Hoogendoorn J, Hooker S, Horsfall J, Horstman DD, Hostert E, Hotze K, Houser LC, Howard CM, Howell LA, Hsiung S, Huang GJ, Huang T, Huang VJ, Hubley J, Hufford E, Hughes R, Hughes LE, Huizenga E, Hunnewell N, Hunnicutt K, Hunt G, Hunt T, Hurd K, Hurlbert M, Hurst K, Husein A, Hutchison KW, Hutton S, Huynh H, Huynh S, Hwang V, Hynes J, Ibe C, Ibele A, Ibrahim C, Icazatti-Burtell A, Igou T, Ikejiani J, Illback M, Illingworth E, Imler A, Imperial J, Interrante EJ, Ion J, Ionescu A, Ipapo K, Ireland SK, Irwin CE, Isern S, Issac A, Issac TF, Ivanova K, Iyengar V, Ize-Iyamu O, Jackson A, Jackson C, Jackson S, Jackson J, Jain N, Jalal M, Jamborcic A, James B, Jamison W, Jancevski A, Jandourek E, Jankowski E, Janssen G, Jarvik JW, Jasinto PG, Jaswaney R, Jaswaney R, Jayakumar KL, Jeffers A, Jefferson M, Jefferson S, Jefferson T, Jen S, Jen T, Jenkins AC, Jenkins MM, Jenkins VR, Jensen S, Jensen-Cody C, Jeon JI, Jiang H, Jiang WL, Jiang X, Jiang Y, Johnson AA, Johnson A, Johnson AM, Johnson B, Johnson C, Johnson C, Johnson J, Johnson JE, Johnson E, Johnson BK, Johnson K, Johnson L, Johnson M, Johnson N, Johnson R, Johnson R, Johnson A, Johnston E, Johnston R, Johnston K, Joiner N, Jones A, Jones G, Jones I, Jones J, Jones NL, Jones JD, Jones K, Jones L, Jones M, Jones M, Jones M, Joo L, Jordan T, Jordan-Ferrer C, Juarez M, Judd B, Juel M, Juhring R, Jujjavarapu H, Julian JF, Julian NW, Jung E, Jung J, Jung P, Jurado J, Jurado Z, Justus N, Kaczynski K, Kagy DN, Kakonikos M, Kamstra C, Kanani-Hendijani T, Kantor K, Kappe AJ, Karacozoff A, Karam A, Karamsetty L, Karic S, Karuturi S, Kasera S, Kassa W, Kassardjian M, Kasza T, Katon D, Kaur B, Kaurich K, Kawwa M, Kazane K, Keag M, Kearney S, Kearns A, Kearse MG, Keeler G, Keen N, Keeton A, Keleher M, Keller C, Keller P, Kelley A, Kelley B, Kelley T, Kelling B, Kelly E, Kelly K, Kelsey J, Kenna MA, Kennedy E, Kennedy E, Kennedy K, Kennedy L, Kenney EJ, Kerk S, Kern M, Kerr M, Kerry M, Kesaris AC, Kesinger E, Kessel SB, Kettoola Y, Keyes J, Khan Z, Khan SA, Khazanchi R, Khenner E, Kibria F, Kiehl J, Kiflezghi M, Kiladjian A, Killen C, Killingsworth BW, Killough L, Killpatrick MS, Kim B, Kim JS, Kim D, Kim N, Kim Y, Kindberg J, Kinder M, King A, King K, King T, King RA, King Smith C, Kiosse B, Kirk J, Kirkpatrick E, Kirsch J, Kiskamp T, Kittaka E, Kivela A, Klein B, Klein R, Klepek H, Kline C, Klinger J, Klingler L, Klobucher T, Klyczek K, Knapp R, Knight A, Knol J, Knopf J, Knutson A, Ko K, Ko TW, Koberstein S, Koga AP, Kogler A, Kohlway W, Kokkonen K, Kolar CR, Kolich L, Konda M, Konzek B, Koon J, Kopper T, Korey CA, Kornsey K, Kozdronkiewicz M, Kozlov A, Kponou MM, Kraft A, Kraft L, Kramer Z, Kratkiewicz A, Kratochvil T, Kraus A, Krause A, Kraut J, Kreger A, Kreitzman M, Krejcarek O, Kremer J, Krings L, Kroner GM, Krukonis GP, Kryger A, Ku LC, Kuhn JL, Kuhn L, Kuleck G, Kurian E, Kurz M, Kwak T, Kwok S, Kwong KG, Labe S, Laboy-De-Jesus F, LaFerriere H, LaFollette M, Lahey C, Lahoda LA, Lai P, Laim G, Laing C, Laird K, Lajoie C, Lake Z, Lam DK, Lam Y, Lamas N, Lambert E, Lambrecht N, Lambright J, Lamsa A, Landaverde I, Lang JF, Lang J, Lang J, Langenbrunner T, Langone A, Lanum E, Lapin J, Lapsansky A, Lapsansky E, Lardner K, Lark L, Larsen T, Larsen V, Larson E, Larson V, Lau J, Laven C, Lawhead J, Lawrence Z, Layfield S, Lazos M, Le D, Le M, Leatherman J, Lebel E, LeBlanc-Straceski JM, Lee D, Lee H, Lee LL, Lee P, Lee S, Lee T, Ying-Chiang Jeffrey L, Lee-Soety JY, Leemow L, Leet T, Lench JH, Lenori D, Lenori T, Leo J, Leonard B, Leonard DM, Leonard J, Leslie F, Leslie S, Lessiak A, Lester RJ, LeTendre N, Levy R, Lewis A, Lewis D, Lewis J, Lewis LO, Lewis N, Lewis Roberts E, Li A, Li D, Li F, Li A, Li Y, Li AJ, Li V, Li W, Li WF, Lichtenfels B, Liddy L, Lidicker G, Lienemann M, Light M, Lin J, Lin T, Linke SE, Links A, Liston LC, Little M, Liu K, Liu M, Lizarraga L, Llano M, Llanos M, Llavona-Cartagena I, Lloyd A, Lockhart R, Lockwood P, Loesser-Casey KE, Logan KR, Logan L, Lombard A, London L, London SC, Londono-Joshi A, Long CB, Longmire M, Loose L, Lopez C, Lopez AJ, Lopez J, Lopez-Cuevas N, Lorenz T, Lott B, Lou KK, Loubser L, Lovas D, Love E, Loviza R, Lowery A, Lowery K, Lozada P, Lu AJ, Lu JW, Lubbers A, Luczka JM, Ludwig CM, Lund SJ, Lundberg E, Lunderberg D, Lunt BL, Luo Y, Lupey LN, Lutyk D, Lynch B, Lyons T, Ma L, Maccarrone A, Maccarrone AL, MacGibeny M, Machin-Rivera R, Machurick M, Mack HB, Mack S, MacKenzie A, Madison L, Maestas T, Magarian JK, Magee L, Mageeney CM, Magier S, Majekodunmi M, Maldonado-Rodriguez J, Maldonado-Vazquez N, Mam S, Manglorkar RD, Manley C, Mansaray J, Marcillo D, Marcus JE, Mardis M, Marfizo CJ, Marian A, Maric E, Marin D, Marin J, Mark R, Marone B, Marquez A, Marquis N, Marsolek P, Mart J, Martin T, Martinez A, Martinez K, Martinez M, Martinez-Vega Y, Martinie R, Martino OA, Martino VL, Martins OA, Marzillier JY, Mason J, Mason SM, Massat B, Mata J, Matern J, Mathew RM, Mathrani O, Matinrad H, Matthew A, Mauch D, Maurer K, Maxton JA, Maya J, Mayer C, Mayer E, Maynard L, Mazahreh RC, McArthur K, Mcburney-Lin J, McCall 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Abstract

The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

KEYWORDS:

bacteriophage; evolution; evolutionary biology; genomics; infectious disease; microbiology; viruses

PMID:
25919952
PMCID:
PMC4408529
DOI:
10.7554/eLife.06416
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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