Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2017 May 23;2(2). pii: E13. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed2020013.

Cost and Relative Value of Road Kill Surveys for Enhanced Rabies Surveillance in Raccoon Rabies Management.

Author information

1
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA. Dennis.Slate@aphis.usda.gov.
2
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA. jordona.d.kirby@aphis.usda.gov.
3
New York Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 230 Timerman Hall, SUNY Potsdam, Potsdam, NY 13676, USA. dan.p.morgan@aphis.usda.gov.
4
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA. Timothy.P.Algeo@aphis.usda.gov.
5
Laboratory of Zoonotic Disease and Clinical Virology, Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 61 Mordella Road, Albany, NY 12205, USA. chucktrimarchi@yahoo.com.
6
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA. kathleen.m.nelson@aphis.usda.gov.
7
Rabies Laboratory, Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Rd., Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA. robert.rudd@health.ny.gov.
8
New Jersey Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Pittstown, NJ 08867, USA. adam.r.randall@aphis.usda.gov.
9
Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Cedar City, UT 84721, USA. mcarrara@fs.fed.us.
10
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA. richard.b.chipman@aphis.usda.gov.

Abstract

Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires knowledge of the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies virus variants targeted for control. Rabies-exposure based public health surveillance alone may not provide a sound basis for ORV decisions. The value and cost of road kill surveys was evaluated for the late spring⁻early fall 2005⁻2007 as a part of enhanced rabies surveillance in northern New York, where raccoon rabies is enzootic and ORV has occurred since the late 1990s. Structured surveys were conducted to collect raccoons and other meso-carnivores for rabies testing at the New York State Rabies Laboratory. Of the 209 meso-carnivore heads collected and submitted for testing, 175 were testable by direct fluorescent antibody; none was rabid. Rabies was also not reported through public health surveillance in survey zones during 2005⁻2007. Overall, survey costs were $37,118 (2016 USD). Salaries and benefits accounted for 61% of costs, followed by fuel (22%), vehicle depreciation (14%), and sample shipping (3%). Mean daily distance driven was 303 ± 37 km and 381 ± 28 km for total road kills and raccoons, respectively. Costs/road kill collected and submitted was $176/all species and $224/raccoon. This study provides costs for planning road kill surveys and underscores the need to continually improve enhanced rabies surveillance approaches to support ORV decision making.

KEYWORDS:

enhanced rabies surveillance; meso-carnivores; oral rabies vaccination (ORV); rabies; raccoon; road kill; skunk

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center