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Environ Monit Assess. 2017 Aug;189(8):364. doi: 10.1007/s10661-017-6089-x. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Application of multivariate statistical approach to identify trace elements sources in surface waters: a case study of Kowalskie and Stare Miasto reservoirs, Poland.

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Department of Hydrogeology and Water Protection, Adam Mickiewicz University, 12 Bogumiła Krygowskiego Street, 61-680, Poznań, Poland.
Subdepartament of Hydrology and Water Resources, Poznań Life Science University, 94 Piątkowska Street, 61-691, Poznań, Poland.


The paper reports the results of measurements of trace elements concentrations in surface water samples collected at the lowland retention reservoirs of Stare Miasto and Kowalskie (Poland). The samples were collected once a month from October 2011 to November 2012. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn were determined in water samples using the inductively coupled plasma with mass detection (ICP-QQQ). To assess the chemical composition of surface water, multivariate statistical methods of data analysis were used, viz. cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). They made it possible to observe similarities and differences in the chemical composition of water in the points of water samples collection, to uncover hidden factors accounting for the structure of the data, and to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic sources on the content of trace elements in the water of retention reservoirs. The conducted statistical analyses made it possible to distinguish groups of trace elements allowing for the analysis of time and spatial variation of water in the studied reservoirs.


Agricultural catchment; ICP-QQQ; Multivariate statistical techniques; Pollution; Trace elements; Urban sources

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