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Environ Pollut. 2018 Aug;239:82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.067. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Airborne ultrafine particles in a naturally ventilated metro station: Dominant sources and mixing state determined by particle size distribution and volatility measurements.

Author information

1
Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece; University of the Aegean, Department of Environment, 81100 Mytilene, Greece.
2
Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece.
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands; Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, 2121 Nicosia, Cyprus.
4
School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK.
5
Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece. Electronic address: elefther@ipta.demokritos.gr.

Abstract

Ultrafine particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured on the platform of a metro station in Athens, Greece, and compared with those recorded at an urban background station. The volatility of the sampled particles was measured in parallel, providing further insights on the mixing state and composition of the sampled particles. Particle concentration exhibited a mean value of 1.2 × 104 # cm-3 and showed a weak correlation with train passage frequency, but exhibited a strong correlation with urban background particle concentrations. The size distribution appears to be strongly influenced by outdoor conditions, such as the morning traffic rush hour and new particle formation events observed at noon. The aerosol in the metro was externally mixed throughout the day, with particle populations being identified (1) as fully refractory particles being more dominant during the morning traffic rush hours, (2) as core-shell structure particles having a non-volatile core coated with volatile material, and (3) fully volatile particles. The evolution of particle volatility and size throughout the day provide additional support that most nanoparticles in the metro station originate from outdoor urban air.

KEYWORDS:

Aerosol volatility; Metro; Mixing state; Ultrafine particles; Urban aerosol

PMID:
29649762
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.067
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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