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J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jan;84:214-220. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.09.026. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Familial aggregation of schizotypy in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and its relation to clinical and neurodevelopmental characteristics.

Author information

1
Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.
2
Athens University Medical School, 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Attikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece.
3
Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain; Instituto De Salud Carlos III, Centro De Investigación Biomédica En Red De Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
4
Instituto De Salud Carlos III, Centro De Investigación Biomédica En Red De Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Servei de Salut Mental, Psiquiatria i Addiccions, Hospital Universitari de Santa Maria, Institut de Recerca Biomèdica, Lleida, Spain.
5
Àrea d'Adolescents, Complex Assistencial en Salut Mental, Benito Menni, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Servicio de Psiquiatría, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Instituto de Investigación Sanitária de Navarra (IdiSNA), Pamplona, Spain.
7
Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain; Instituto De Salud Carlos III, Centro De Investigación Biomédica En Red De Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: mar.fatjovilas@ub.edu.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

This study explored schizotypy as a familial liability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) by examining: 1) the aggregation of schizotypy in families with a SSD patient, 2) whether familial resemblance of schizotypy is associated with ridge dissociations (RD), another SSD liability marker, 3) whether schizotypy aggregation patterns influence patients' psychopathology.

METHODS:

The sample comprised 30 SSD patients and 82 healthy first-degree relatives. Schizotypy was assessed using the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R). Patients' psychopathology was evaluated using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). RD were identified as anomalies of the dermal ridge junction. Familiality of SIS-R was investigated using a linear mixed model (LMM) and its strength was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Another LMM using the absolute differences in SIS-R scores between all possible pairs of relatives as the dependent variable was fitted to obtain an intra-family resemblance score, a family-specific indicator of resemblance of SIS-R scores within each family.

RESULTS:

1) Schizotypy was familial (ICC = 0.30); families with high resemblance displayed low schizotypy, whereas families with low resemblance included at least one healthy relative with high schizotypy (p < 0.001). 2) Relatives with RD had higher SIS-R scores (p = 0.018) and belonged to families with discordant schizotypy scores among members (p < 0.001). 3) Patients from high schizotypy families showed more severe disorganized symptoms at the psychotic episode (p = 0.035) and 1 year later (p = 0.011).

CONCLUSIONS:

Schizotypy is a marker of vulnerability for SSD that runs within a subgroup of families. The schizotypy familial aggregation pattern correlates with RD in relatives and with patients' psychopathology.

KEYWORDS:

Dermatoglyphics; Disorganized symptoms; Familial aggregation; Ridge dissociations; Schizophrenia; Schizotypy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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