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Genes (Basel). 2018 Nov 30;9(12). pii: E595. doi: 10.3390/genes9120595.

Trade in Zambian Edible Orchids-DNA Barcoding Reveals the Use of Unexpected Orchid Taxa for Chikanda.

Author information

1
Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. sarina.veldman@ebc.uu.se.
2
Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. seoljong.kim@gmail.com.
3
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. tinde.vanAndel@naturalis.nl.
4
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Postboks 1172, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. mariabellofont@hotmail.com.
5
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. R.Bone@kew.org.
6
Bews Herbarium, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pr. Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa. Bytebier@ukzn.ac.za.
7
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zambia, Box 32379 Lusaka, Zambia. david.chuba@unza.zm.
8
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. barbara.gravendeel@naturalis.nl.
9
Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. barbara.gravendeel@naturalis.nl.
10
University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Zernikedreef 11, 2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands. barbara.gravendeel@naturalis.nl.
11
Bews Herbarium, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pr. Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa. florentmartos@gmail.com.
12
Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, CP50, 45 rue Buffon 75005 Paris, France. florentmartos@gmail.com.
13
School of Natural Resources, The Copperbelt University, PO Box 21692 Kitwe, Zambia. gmpatwa@gmail.com.
14
Bews Herbarium, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pr. Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa. grace.ngugi@yahoo.com.
15
East African Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. grace.ngugi@yahoo.com.
16
School of Natural Resources, The Copperbelt University, PO Box 21692 Kitwe, Zambia. royd.vinya@gmail.com.
17
Homegarden Landscape Consultants Ltd., P/Bag 30C, Chilanga, Lusaka, Zambia. homegarden.nicholas@gmail.com.
18
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. K.Yokoya@kew.org.
19
Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. h.d.boer@nhm.uio.no.
20
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. h.d.boer@nhm.uio.no.

Abstract

In Zambia, wild edible terrestrial orchids are used to produce a local delicacy called chikanda, which has become increasingly popular throughout the country. Commercialization puts orchid populations in Zambia and neighbouring countries at risk of overharvesting. Hitherto, no study has documented which orchid species are traded on local markets, as orchid tubers are difficult to identify morphologically. In this study, the core land-plant DNA barcoding markers rbcL and matK were used in combination with nrITS to determine which species were sold in Zambian markets. Eighty-two interviews were conducted to determine harvesting areas, as well as possible sustainability concerns. By using nrITS DNA barcoding, a total of 16 orchid species in six different genera could be identified. Both rbcL and matK proved suitable to identify the tubers up to the genus or family level. Disa robusta, Platycoryne crocea and Satyrium buchananii were identified most frequently and three previously undocumented species were encountered on the market. Few orchid species are currently listed on the global International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Local orchid populations and endemic species could be at risk of overharvesting due to the intensive and indiscriminate harvesting of chikanda orchids, and we therefore encourage increased conservation assessment of terrestrial African orchids.

KEYWORDS:

CITES; DNA barcoding; chikanda; conservation; orchids; species identification

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