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Toxins (Basel). 2019 Oct 31;11(11). pii: E634. doi: 10.3390/toxins11110634.

Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains - An Update.

Author information

1
Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada. nora.foroud@agr.gc.ca.
2
Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada. danica.baines@canada.ca.
3
Laboratory of Mycology and Phytopathology, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection (VIZR), St. Petersburg, Pushkin 196608, Russia. t.gagkaeva@yahoo.com.
4
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada. nthakor@uleth.ca.
5
Brandon Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, MB R7A 5Y3, Canada. ana.badea@canada.ca.
6
Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Tulln 3430, Austria. barbara.steiner@boku.ac.at.
7
Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Tulln 3430, Austria. maria.buerstmayr@boku.ac.at.
8
Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Tulln 3430, Austria. hermann.buerstmayr@boku.ac.at.

Abstract

Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by fungi from the order Hypocreales, including members of the Fusarium genus that infect cereal grain crops. Different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species and strains have different trichothecene chemotypes belonging to the Type A and B class. These fungi cause a disease of small grain cereals, called Fusarium head blight, and their toxins contaminate host tissues. As potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis, trichothecenes pose a health risk to human and animal consumers of infected cereal grains. In 2009, Foroud and Eudes published a review of trichothecenes in cereal grains for human consumption. As an update to this review, the work herein provides a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary review of the Fusarium trichothecenes covering topics in chemistry and biochemistry, pathogen biology, trichothecene toxicity, molecular mechanisms of resistance or detoxification, genetics of resistance and breeding strategies to reduce their contamination of wheat and barley.

KEYWORDS:

Fusarium; Fusarium head blight (FHB); T-2 toxin; barley; deoxynivalenol; resistance; wheat

PMID:
31683661
DOI:
10.3390/toxins11110634
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