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Materials (Basel). 2018 Aug 14;11(8). pii: E1428. doi: 10.3390/ma11081428.

Almond Shell as a Microporous Carbon Source for Sustainable Cathodes in Lithium⁻Sulfur Batteries.

Author information

1
Dpto. Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto de Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. q62betoa@uco.es.
2
Dpto. Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto de Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. q92gotem@uco.es.
3
Dpto. Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto de Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. alvaro.caballero@uco.es.
4
Dpto. Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto de Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. iq1mopaj@uco.es.

Abstract

A microporous carbon derived from biomass (almond shells) and activated with phosphoric acid was analysed as a cathodic matrix in Li⁻S batteries. By studying the parameters of the carbonization process of this biomass residue, certain conditions were determined to obtain a high surface area of carbon (967 m² g-1) and high porosity (0.49 cm³ g-1). This carbon was capable of accommodating up to 60% by weight of sulfur, infiltrated by the disulphide method. The C⁻S composite released an initial specific capacity of 915 mAh g-1 in the Li⁻S cell at a current density of 100 mA g-1 with a high retention capacity of 760 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles and a coulombic efficiency close to 100%. The good performance of the composite was also observed under higher current rates (up to 1000 mA g-1). The overall electrochemical behaviour of this microporous carbon acting as a sulfur host reinforces the possibility of using biomass residues as sustainable sources of materials for energy storage.

KEYWORDS:

agricultural waste; almond; biomass-derived carbon; lithium–sulfur batteries; sulfur composite

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