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Animals (Basel). 2019 Nov 11;9(11). pii: E947. doi: 10.3390/ani9110947.

Quality of Adherence to the ARRIVE Guidelines in the Material and Methods Section in Studies Where Swine Were Used as Surgical Biomodels: A Systematic Review (2013-2018).

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Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, 05508-270 São Paulo, Brazil.
Laboratorio de Docencia en Cirugía y Cáncer (DCLab), University of Costa Rica, 10501 San José, Costa Rica.
Laboratory of Experimental and Comparative Pathology (LAPECOM), Biology School, University of Costa Rica, 10501 San José, Costa Rica.


Over the last two decades, pigs have become animal biomodels widely used for the investigation and practice of surgical techniques because of their great physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. Even though many of these studies must be carried out later in humans, the description of basic information is limited, making exact repetitions of the reported experimental methods impossible. In this review, 108 studies from 2013 to 2018 were considered to determine the quality of adherence to the ARRIVE guidelines in the reports of the methodologies. The majority of the studies lacked the details recommended in the ARRIVE guidelines regarding data directly related to the welfare of animals undergoing surgery and those about anesthetic protocols and analgesics. Information related to sample size calculation and housing and husbandry conditions was also very limited. We believe that the ARRIVE guidelines are an excellent tool for good-quality reporting. We encourage scientists to consistently use them as a tool to improve the quality of their scientific reports and, consequently, ensure animal welfare.


ARRIVE guidelines; analgesia; anesthesia; pigs; surgery

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