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ChemSusChem. 2014 Jun;7(6):1627-36. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201301242. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.

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Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21949-909 RJ (Brazil).


The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect.


biomass; carbohydrates; cracking; hydrolysis; isotopic labeling

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