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Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018 Dec 5;8(12). pii: E1010. doi: 10.3390/nano8121010.

Effects of Protonation, Hydroxylamination, and Hydrazination of g-C₃N₄ on the Performance of Matrimid®/g-C₃N₄ Membranes.

Author information

1
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, ETSIIAA, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain. maria.soto.herranz@alumnos.uva.es.
2
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, ETSIIAA, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain. msanchez@agro.uva.es.
3
SMAP, UA-UVa_CSIC, Associated Research Unit to CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid, Spain. tonhg@termo.uva.es.
4
SMAP, UA-UVa_CSIC, Associated Research Unit to CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid, Spain. jicalvo@termo.uva.es.
5
Agriculture and Forestry Engineering Department, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain. mgil@iaf.uva.es.
6
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Ciencias Ambientales (IUCA), EPS, Universidad de Zaragoza, Carretera de Cuarte s/n, 22071 Huesca, Spain. pmr@unizar.es.

Abstract

One of the challenges to continue improving polymeric membranes properties involves the development of novel chemically modified fillers, such as nitrogen-rich 2-D nanomaterials. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) has attracted significant interest as a new class of these fillers. Protonation is known to afford it desirable functionalities to form unique architectures for various applications. In the work presented herein, doping of Matrimid® with protonated g-C₃N₄ to yield Matrimid®/g-C₃N₄ mixed matrix membranes was found to improve gas separation by enhancing the selectivity for CO₂/CH₄ by up to 36.9% at 0.5 wt % filler doping. With a view to further enhancing the contribution of g-C₃N₄ to the performance of the composite membrane, oxygen plasma and hydrazine monohydrate treatments were also assayed as alternatives to protonation. Hydroxylamination by oxygen plasma treatment increased the selectivity for CO₂/CH₄ by up to 52.2% (at 2 wt % doping) and that for O₂/N₂ by up to 26.3% (at 0.5 wt % doping). Hydrazination led to lower enhancements in CO₂/CH₄ separation, by up to 11.4%. This study suggests that chemically-modified g-C₃N₄ may hold promise as an additive for modifying the surface of Matrimid® and other membranes.

KEYWORDS:

CO2/CH4; Matrimid® 5218; O2/N2; carbon nitride; gas separation; mixed matrix membrane

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