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Mar Pollut Bull. 2013 Dec 15;77(1-2):380-95. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.09.043. Epub 2013 Oct 15.

Temporal variability and climatology of hydrodynamic, water property and water quality parameters in the West Johor Strait of Singapore.

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Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India; Physical Oceanography Research Laboratory, Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, S2S, 18 Kent Ridge Road 119227, Singapore. Electronic address:


The study presents a baseline variability and climatology study of measured hydrodynamic, water properties and some water quality parameters of West Johor Strait, Singapore at hourly-to-seasonal scales to uncover their dependency and correlation to one or more drivers. The considered parameters include, but not limited by sea surface elevation, current magnitude and direction, solar radiation and air temperature, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a and turbidity. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis is carried out for the parameters to delineate relative effect of tidal and weather drivers. The group and individual correlations between the parameters are obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and cross-correlation (CC) technique, respectively. The CC technique also identifies the dependency and time lag between driving natural forces and dependent water property and water quality parameters. The temporal variability and climatology of the driving forces and the dependent parameters are established at the hourly, daily, fortnightly and seasonal scales.


Chlorophyll-a; Principal component analysis; Salinity; Singapore; Turbidity; Variability; West Johor Strait

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