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Materials (Basel). 2014 Sep 5;7(9):6317-6366. doi: 10.3390/ma7096317.

A Review on Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution.

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Department of Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 20, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia.
Department of Food Technology, University of Applied Sciences in Požega, Vukovarska 17, HR-34000 Požega, Croatia.
HSE Public Analyst's Laboratory Galway, University College Hospital, Seamus Quirke Road, Galway, Ireland.


Fluoride is one of the anionic contaminants which is found in excess in surface or groundwater because of geochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities such as the disposal of industrial wastewaters. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water such as coagulation, precipitation, membrane processes, electrolytic treatment, ion-exchange, the adsorption process is widely used. It offers satisfactory results and seems to be a more attractive method for the removal of fluoride in terms of cost, simplicity of design and operation. Various conventional and non-conventional adsorbents have been assessed for the removal of fluoride from water. In this review, a list of various adsorbents (oxides and hydroxides, biosorbents, geomaterials, carbonaceous materials and industrial products and by-products) and its modifications from literature are surveyed and their adsorption capacities under various conditions are compared. The effect of other impurities on fluoride removal has also been discussed. This survey showed that various adsorbents, especially binary and trimetal oxides and hydroxides, have good potential for the fluoride removal from aquatic environments.


adsorbents; adsorption; fluoride; fluoride removal; water

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