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Trop Med Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 1;3(3). pii: E80. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed3030080.

New Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker of Human Exposure to Aedes Vector Bites: From Concept to Applications.

Author information

1
MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier, France. andre.sagna@ird.fr.
2
Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut Nationale de la Santé Publique (INSP), BP 1500 Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. andre.sagna@ird.fr.
3
Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut Nationale de la Santé Publique (INSP), BP 1500 Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.
4
UFR Sciences de la Nature, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, BP 801 Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
5
MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier, France. emmsdille@yahoo.fr.
6
Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. Box 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroun. emmsdille@yahoo.fr.
7
MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier, France. franck.remoue@ird.fr.

Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) are the most important 'emerging pathogens' because of their geographic spread and their increasing impact on vulnerable human populations. To fight against these arboviruses, vector control strategies (VCS) remain one of the most valuable means. However, their implementation and monitoring are labour intensive and difficult to sustain on large scales, especially when transmission and Aedes mosquito densities are low. To increase the efficacy of VCS, current entomological methods should be improved by new complementary tools which measure the risk of arthropod-borne diseases' transmission. The study of human⁻Aedes immunological relationships can provide new promising serological tools, namely antibody-based biomarkers, allowing to accurately estimate the human⁻Aedes contact and consequently, the risk of transmission of arboviruses and the effectiveness of VCS. This review focuses on studies highlighting the concept, techniques, and methods used to develop and validate specific candidate biomarkers of human exposure to Aedes bites. Potential applications of such antibody-based biomarkers of exposure to Aedes vector bites in the field of operational research are also discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Aedes exposure; arbovirus transmission; biomarker; immuno-epidemiology; salivary proteins

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