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Nutrients. 2015 Aug 5;7(8):6520-8. doi: 10.3390/nu7085294.

Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

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School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13484-350, Brazil.
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 01246-904, Brazil.
Laboratory of Immunology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, 13036-225, Brazil.
University College London, London WC1H 0EG, UK.



The benefits of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected subjects have been limited by an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a low dose of marine omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory marker concentrations in HIV-infected subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART).


This was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid-DHA) or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo) for 24 weeks in 83 male and non-pregnant female HIV-infected adults on ART.


There were no differences between groups for the measures at baseline. Multilevel analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship between the longitudinal changes in high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (Wald Chi2 = 0.17, p = 0.918), fibrinogen (Wald Chi2 = 3.82, p = 0.148), and factor VIII (Wald Chi2 = 5.25, p = 0.073) with fish oil. No significant changes in interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-1 beta (IL1-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) serum concentrations were observed with fish oil supplements for 12 weeks.


Compared to placebo, a low dose of 900 mg omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA) in fish oil capsules did not change hs-CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IL6, IL1-beta and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in HIV-infected subjects on ART. Further investigations should consider the assessment of more sensitive inflammatory markers or higher doses to evaluate the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Registered at the Nederlands Trial Register, Identifier no. NTR1798.


AIDS; C reactive protein; HIV infection; factor VIII; fibrinogen; inflammation; interleukin 1-beta; interleukin 6; metabolic syndrome; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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